S-3
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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 5, 2020

Registration No. 333-          

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

OYSTER POINT PHARMA, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   81-1030955

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

202 Carnegie Center, Suite 109

Princeton, New Jersey 08540

(609) 382-9032

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

Jeffrey Nau, Ph.D., M.M.S.

President and Chief Executive Officer

Oyster Point Pharma, Inc.

202 Carnegie Center, Suite 109

Princeton, New Jersey 08540

(609) 382-9032

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copies to:

Divakar Gupta

Ryan Sansom

Brandon Fenn

Shashi Khiani

Cooley LLP

55 Hudson Yards

New York, New York 10001

(212) 479-6000

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this Registration Statement becomes effective.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐


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If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  ☒

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of

Securities to be Registered

 

Amount

to be

Registered

 

Proposed

Maximum

Offering Price

per Unit

 

Proposed

Maximum
Aggregate
Offering Price

  Amount of
Registration Fee(1)

Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share

  (2)   (3)   (3)   —  

Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share

  (2)   (3)   (3)   —  

Debt Securities

  (2)   (3)   (3)   —  

Warrants

  (2)   (3)   (3)   —  

Total

  (2)       $300,000,000  

$32,730

 

 

(1)

Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act.

(2)

There are being registered hereunder such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock, such indeterminate principal amount of debt securities and such indeterminate number of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities as shall have an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $300,000,000. If any debt securities are issued at an original issue discount, then the principal amount of such debt securities shall be in such greater amount as shall result in an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $300,000,000, less the aggregate dollar amount of all securities previously issued hereunder. Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or in combination with other securities registered hereunder. The securities registered also include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock and amount of debt securities as may be issued upon conversion of or exchange for preferred stock or debt securities that provide for conversion or exchange, upon exercise of warrants or pursuant to the antidilution provisions of any such securities. In addition, pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act, the shares being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock as may be issuable with respect to the shares being registered hereunder as a result of stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions.

(3)

The proposed maximum aggregate offering price per class of security will be determined from time to time by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the registrant of the securities registered hereunder and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D. of Form S-3 under the Securities Act.

 

 

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment that specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


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EXPLANATORY NOTE

This registration statement contains two prospectuses:

 

   

a base prospectus which covers the offering, issuance and sale by the registrant of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $300,000,000 of the registrant’s common stock, preferred stock, debt securities and warrants; and

 

   

a prospectus supplement covering the offering, issuance and sale by the registrant of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $100,000,000 of the registrant’s common stock that may be issued and sold under a sales agreement with Cowen and Company, LLC.

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The prospectus supplement immediately follows the base prospectus. The common stock that may be offered, issued and sold by the registrant under the prospectus supplement is included in the $300,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by the registrant under the base prospectus. Any portion of the $100,000,000 included in the prospectus supplement that is not previously sold or included in an active placement notice pursuant to the sales agreement will be available for sale in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus, and if no shares are sold under the sales agreement, the full $300,000,000 of securities may be sold in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement.

 

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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities or accept an offer to buy these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities, and it is not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any state where such offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED NOVEMBER 5, 2020

PROSPECTUS

 

 

LOGO

$300,000,000

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

From time to time, we may offer up to $300,000,000 of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings. We may also offer securities as may be issuable upon conversion, redemption, repurchase, exchange or exercise of any securities registered hereunder, including any applicable antidilution provisions.

This prospectus provides a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer securities, we will provide specific terms of the securities offered in a supplement to this prospectus. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as any documents incorporated by reference, before you invest in any of the securities being offered.

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of any securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “OYST.” On November 4, 2020, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $22.49 per share. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing on The Nasdaq Global Select Market or any securities market or other exchange of the securities, if any, covered by the prospectus supplement.

We will sell these securities directly to investors, through agents designated from time to time or to or through underwriters or dealers, on a continuous or delayed basis. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section titled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus. If any agents or underwriters are involved in the sale of any securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such agents or underwriters and any applicable fees, commissions, discounts or over-allotment options will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.

 

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus as described on page 5 of this prospectus.

 

 

NEITHER THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION NOR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION HAS APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED OF THESE SECURITIES OR DETERMINED IF THIS PROSPECTUS IS TRUTHFUL OR COMPLETE. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is                , 2020.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     i  

SUMMARY

     1  

RISK FACTORS

     5  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     6  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     8  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     9  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     14  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     21  

LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

     23  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     27  

LEGAL MATTERS

     28  

EXPERTS

     29  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     29  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

     29  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is a part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings up to a total aggregate offering price of $300,000,000. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer.

Each time we sell securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in any documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should read this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, together with the information incorporated herein by reference as described under the heading “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference,” before investing in any of the securities offered.

THIS PROSPECTUS MAY NOT BE USED TO CONSUMMATE A SALE OF SECURITIES UNLESS IT IS ACCOMPANIED BY A PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT.

Neither we, nor any agent, underwriter or dealer has authorized any person to give any information or to make any representation other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. This prospectus, any applicable supplement to this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the registered securities to which they relate, nor do this prospectus, any applicable supplement to this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation in such jurisdiction.

You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is accurate on any date subsequent to the date set forth on the front of the document or that any information we have incorporated by reference is correct on any date subsequent to the date of the document incorporated by reference, even though this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is delivered, or securities are sold, on a later date.

This prospectus and the information incorporated herein by reference contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

Oyster Point, the Oyster Point logo and our other registered or common law trademarks appearing in this prospectus are the property of Oyster Point Pharma, Inc. This prospectus contains references to our trademarks and service marks and to those belonging to other entities. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus, including logos, artwork and other visual displays, may appear without the ® or TM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate in any way that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and trade names. We do not intend our use or display of other entities’ trade names, trademarks or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other entity.

 

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SUMMARY

The following summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you need to consider in making your investment decision. You should carefully read the entire prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, including the risks of investing in our securities discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should also carefully read the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our financial statements, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

Unless the context indicates otherwise, references in this prospectus to “Oyster Point,” “the Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar references refer to Oyster Point Pharma, Inc.

Overview

We are a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of first-in-class pharmaceutical therapies to treat ocular surface diseases. The Company’s lead product candidate OC-01 (varenicline), a highly selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist, is being developed as a nasal spray to treat the signs and symptoms of dry eye disease. OC-01’s novel mechanism of action is designed to re-establish tear film homeostasis by activating the trigeminal parasympathetic pathway and stimulating the glands and cells responsible for natural tear film production. Based on OC-01’s clinical trial results and its novel mechanism of action, the Company believes OC-01, if approved, has the potential to become the new standard of care and redefine how dry eye disease is treated for millions of patients. The Company believes that targeting the parasympathetic nervous system through the use of locally administered cholinergic agonists has the potential to treat a wide range of diseases and disorders. The Company has identified several additional indications, including the ones outside of ophthalmology, where this approach could provide a meaningful benefit to patients.

Since its formation in June 2015, the Company has devoted substantially all of its resources to developing its product candidates. The Company has incurred significant operating losses to date. The Company’s net losses were $48.3 million and $26.0 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively. As of September 30, 2020, the Company had an accumulated deficit of $132.5 million. The Company expects that its operating expenses will increase significantly as it advances its product candidates through preclinical and clinical development, seeks regulatory approval, and prepares for and, if approved, proceeds to commercialization; acquires, discovers, validates and develops additional product candidates; obtains, maintains, protects and enforces its intellectual property portfolio; and hires additional personnel. In addition, the Company has incurred and will continue to incur additional costs associated with operating as a public company.

The Company does not have any products approved for sale and has not generated any revenue since inception. The Company’s ability to generate product revenue will depend on the successful development, regulatory approval and eventual commercialization of one or more of its product candidates. Until such time as it can generate significant revenue from product sales, if ever, the Company expects to finance its operations through private or public equity or debt financings, collaborative or other arrangements with corporate sources, or through other sources of financing. Adequate funding may not be available to the Company on acceptable terms, or at all. If the Company fails to raise capital or enter into such agreements as and when needed, it may have to significantly delay, scale back or discontinue the development and commercialization of its product candidates.



 

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The Company plans to continue to use third-party service providers, including clinical research organizations (CROs) and contract manufacturing organization (CMOs), to carry out its preclinical and clinical development and to manufacture and supply the materials to be used during the development and commercialization of its product candidates. The Company does not currently have a sales force. If OC-01 is approved, the Company intends to deploy a specialty sales force of approximately 150 to 200 field representatives.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated in Delaware in June 2015. We were spun out from Oculeve, Inc., a Delaware corporation focused on the treatment of dry eye disease, prior to its acquisition by Allergan. Our principal executive offices are located at 202 Carnegie Center, Suite 109, Princeton, New Jersey 08540. Our telephone number is (609) 382-9032. Our website address is www.oysterpointrx.com. Information contained on the website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

The Securities We May Offer

We may offer shares of our common stock and preferred stock, various series of debt securities and warrants to purchase any of such securities, up to a total aggregate offering price of $300,000,000 from time to time in one or more offerings under this prospectus, together with any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the relevant offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

   

designation or classification;

 

   

aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;

 

   

maturity, if applicable;

 

   

original issue discount, if any;

 

   

rates and times of payment of interest or dividends, if any;

 

   

redemption, conversion, exchange or sinking fund terms, if any;

 

   

ranking, if applicable;

 

   

restrictive covenants, if any;

 

   

voting or other rights, if any;

 

   

conversion or exchange prices or rates, if any, and, if applicable, any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the conversion or exchange prices or rates and in the securities or other property receivable upon conversion or exchange; and

 

   

important U.S. federal income tax considerations.

The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in documents we have incorporated by reference. However, no prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus will offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.



 

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We may sell the securities directly to investors or through underwriters, dealers or agents. We, and our underwriters or agents, reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we do offer securities through underwriters or agents, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:

 

   

the names of those underwriters or agents;

 

   

applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;

 

   

details regarding over-allotment options, if any; and

 

   

the estimated net proceeds to us.

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

Common Stock. We may issue shares of our common stock from time to time. Each holder of common stock is entitled to one vote for each share on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders and does not have cumulative voting rights. Subject to preferences that may apply to any outstanding preferred stock, holders of our common stock are entitled to receive ratably any dividends that our board of directors may declare out of funds legally available for that purpose. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock are entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of liabilities and the liquidation preference of any outstanding preferred stock. Holders of our common stock have no preemptive, conversion, subscription or other rights, and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of our common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that we may designate in the future.

Preferred Stock. We may issue shares of our preferred stock from time to time, in one or more series. Under our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our stockholders (unless such stockholder action is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or market on which our securities are then traded), to issue up to 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the number, rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions thereof. These rights, preferences and privileges could include dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, liquidation preferences and sinking fund terms, and the number of shares constituting any series or the designation of such series, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of common stock. Any convertible preferred stock we may issue will be convertible into our common stock or exchangeable for our other securities. Conversion may be mandatory or at the holder’s option and would be at prescribed conversion rates.

If we sell any series of preferred stock under this prospectus, we will fix the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of such series of preferred stock, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock that we are offering before the issuance of the related series of preferred stock. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the preferred stock under the heading “Description of Capital Stock—Preferred Stock.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of preferred stock being offered, as well as the complete certificate of designation that contains the terms of the applicable series of preferred stock.

Debt Securities. From time to time, we may issue debt securities in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. The senior debt securities will rank equally with any other unsecured and unsubordinated debt. The subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in



 

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right of payment, to the extent and in the manner described in the instrument governing the debt, to all of our senior indebtedness. Convertible debt securities will be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or other securities. Conversion may be mandatory or at the holder’s option and would be at prescribed conversion rates.

Any debt securities issued under this prospectus will be issued under one or more documents called indentures, which are contracts between us and a national banking association or other eligible party, as trustee. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the debt securities under the heading “Description of Debt Securities.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of debt securities being offered, as well as the complete indenture(s) and any supplemental indentures that contain the terms of the debt securities. We have filed a form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered.

Warrants. From time to time, we may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities, in one or more series, from time to time. We may issue warrants independently or in combination with common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from these securities. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the warrants under the heading “Description of Warrants.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the particular series of warrants being offered, as well as the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants. We have filed forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants that we may offer as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that contain the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of such warrants.

Any warrants issued under this prospectus may be evidenced by warrant certificates. Warrants may be issued under a warrant agreement that we enter into with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent, if applicable, in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of warrants being offered.



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully review the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, as updated by our most recent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference into this prospectus, before deciding whether to purchase any of the securities being registered pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities, and the occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also significantly impair our business operations.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus, including the information incorporated herein by reference, contains, and any prospectus supplement may contain, forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this prospectus, including the information incorporated herein by reference, are forward-looking statements, including statements about:

 

   

the likelihood of the Company’s clinical trials demonstrating safety and efficacy of its product candidates, and other positive results;

 

   

the timing of initiation of the Company’s future clinical trials, and the reporting of data from completed, current and future clinical trials and preclinical studies;

 

   

plans relating to the clinical development of the Company’s product candidates, including the size, number and disease areas to be evaluated;

 

   

the size of the market opportunity and prevalence of dry eye disease (DED) for the Company’s product candidates;

 

   

plans relating to commercializing the Company’s product candidates, if approved, including the geographic areas of focus and sales strategy;

 

   

the success of competing therapies that are or may become available;

 

   

the Company’s estimates of the number of patients in the United States who suffer from DED and the number of patients that will enroll in its clinical trials;

 

   

the beneficial characteristics, safety, efficacy and therapeutic effects of the Company’s product candidates;

 

   

the timing, likelihood or scope of regulatory filings and approval for its product candidates;

 

   

the Company’s ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of its product candidates;

 

   

the Company’s plans relating to the further development and manufacturing of its product candidates, including additional indications for which it may pursue;

 

   

the expected potential benefits of strategic collaborations with third parties and the Company’s ability to attract collaborators with development, regulatory and commercialization expertise;

 

   

existing regulations and regulatory developments in the United States and other jurisdictions;

 

   

the Company’s plans and ability to obtain or protect intellectual property rights, including extensions of existing patent terms where available;

 

   

continued reliance on third parties to conduct additional clinical trials of the Company’s product candidates, and for the manufacture and supply of product candidates, components for preclinical studies and clinical trials and products and components for commercialization of any approved products;

 

   

the need to hire additional personnel, and the Company’s ability to attract and retain such personnel;

 

   

the potential effects of the SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic on business, operations and clinical development timelines and plans;

 

   

the accuracy of estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

   

the Company’s financial performance;

 

   

the sufficiency of existing capital resources to fund future operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements;

 

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expectations regarding the period during which the Company will qualify as an emerging growth company under the JOBS Act; and

 

   

the Company’s anticipated use of its existing resources and proceeds from the initial and follow-on public offering.

In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target” or “will” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions intended to identify statements about the future. Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified and some of which are beyond our control, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in our forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements.

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this report, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently, uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

You should read the section titled “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our most recent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC, for a discussion of important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors and uncertainties may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties. As a result of these factors, we cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or any documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus will prove to be accurate. Except as required by applicable law, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein, whether as a result of any new information, future events, changed circumstances or otherwise.

You should read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We will retain broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered hereby. Except as described in any applicable prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you in connection with a specific offering, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered hereby, if any, for general corporate purposes, including research and development expenses, general and administrative expenses, sales and marketing expenses, capital expenditures, which may include costs of funding future acquisitions, and working capital or for any other purpose we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus our intended use for the net proceeds received from the sale of any securities sold pursuant to the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus. Pending the use of net proceeds, we plan to invest the net proceeds in short- and intermediate-term interest-bearing obligations, investment-grade securities, certificates of deposit or government securities.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following description of our capital stock is a summary and does not purport to be complete. It is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, the applicable provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our amended and restated bylaws and our amended and restated investors’ rights agreement. The amended and restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws and amended and restated investors’ rights agreement are incorporated by reference as Exhibits 3.1, 3.2 and 4.2, respectively, to this prospectus. We encourage you to read the amended and restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws and amended and restated investors’ rights agreement and the applicable provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the DGCL, for more information.

General

Our authorized capital stock consists of 1,000,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share. Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “OYST.”

Common Stock

Voting Rights

Each holder of common stock is entitled to one vote for each share on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders, including the election of directors. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws to be in effect upon the completion of this offering do not provide for cumulative voting rights. Because of this, the holders of a plurality of the shares of common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors can elect all of the directors standing for election, if they should so choose. With respect to matters other than the election of directors, at any meeting of the stockholders at which a quorum is present or represented, the affirmative vote of a majority of the voting power of the shares present in person or represented by proxy at such meeting and entitled to vote on the subject matter shall be the act of the stockholders, except as otherwise required by law. The holders of a majority of the stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at all meetings of the stockholders.

Dividends

Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then-outstanding redeemable convertible preferred stock, holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by our board of directors out of legally available funds.

Liquidation

In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock will be entitled to share ratably in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities and the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any then-outstanding shares of redeemable convertible preferred stock.

Rights and Preferences

Holders of our common stock have no preemptive, conversion, subscription or other rights, and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of our common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our redeemable convertible preferred stock that we may designate in the future.

 

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Registration Rights

Certain holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to rights with respect to the registration of their shares under the Securities Act pursuant to the terms of our investors’ rights agreement. The investors’ rights agreement provides for demand, piggyback and S-3 registration rights, subject to certain conditions. The registration of shares of our common stock pursuant to the exercise of these registration rights would enable the holders to trade these shares without restriction under the Securities Act when the applicable registration statement is declared effective. The registration rights under our investors’ rights agreement will expire no later than the fifth anniversary of our initial public offering, or with respect to any particular holder, at such time that such holder can sell its shares under Rule 144 of the Securities Act during any ninety day period and such holder holds less than one percent (1%) of our outstanding securities. We will pay the registration expenses, other than underwriting discounts and selling commissions, of the shares registered pursuant to such registration rights, subject to specified exceptions.

Preferred Stock

Under our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by stockholders, to designate up to 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix or alter, from time to time, the powers, designations, preferences, and relative, participating, optional, or other special rights, if any, and such qualifications and restrictions, if any, of any series of preferred stock, including dividend rights, dividend rate, conversion rights, voting rights, rights and terms of redemption (including sinking fund provisions), redemption price or prices, and the liquidation preference of any wholly unissued series of preferred stock, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of the common stock, and to establish the number of shares constituting any such series.

Our board of directors will fix the rights, preferences, privileges, qualifications and restrictions of the preferred stock of each series that we sell under this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplements in the certificate of designation relating to each such series. We will incorporate by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or as an exhibit to one or more Current Reports on Form 8-K, the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering before the issuance of the related series of preferred stock. This description will include:

 

   

the title and stated value;

 

   

the number of shares we are offering;

 

   

the liquidation preference per share;

 

   

the purchase price per share;

 

   

the dividend rate per share, dividend period, payment date or dates and method of calculation for dividends;

 

   

whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;

 

   

our right, if any, to defer payment of dividends and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

   

the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any;

 

   

the provisions for a sinking fund, if any;

 

   

the provisions for redemption or repurchase, if applicable, and any restrictions on our ability to exercise those redemption and repurchase rights;

 

   

any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange or market;

 

   

whether the preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock or other securities of ours, including warrants, and, if applicable, the conversion price, or how it will be calculated, and under what circumstances and the mechanism by which it may be adjusted, and the conversion period;

 

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whether the preferred stock will be exchangeable into debt securities or other securities of ours, and, if applicable, the exchange price, or how it will be calculated, and under what circumstances it may be adjusted, and the exchange period;

 

   

voting rights, if any;

 

   

preemptive rights, if any;

 

   

restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment, if any;

 

   

whether interests in the preferred stock will be represented by depositary shares;

 

   

a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

 

   

the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs;

 

   

any limitations on issuances of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on parity with the series of preferred stock being issued as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs; and;

 

   

any other specific terms, rights, preferences, privileges, qualifications or limitations of, or restrictions on the preferred stock.

If we issue and sell shares of preferred stock pursuant to this prospectus, together with any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, the shares will be fully paid and nonassessable.

The laws of the state of Delaware, the state of our incorporation, provide that the holders of preferred stock will have the right to vote separately, as a class, on any proposal involving fundamental changes in the rights of holders of such preferred stock. This right is in addition to any voting rights that may be provided for in the applicable certificate of designation.

The issuance of preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power, conversion or other rights of holders of common stock and reduce the likelihood that common stockholders will receive dividend payments and payments upon liquidation. Preferred stock could be issued quickly with terms designed to delay, deter or prevent a change in control of our company or make removal of management more difficult. Additionally, the issuance of preferred stock may have the effect of decreasing the market price of our common stock.

Anti-Takeover Provisions of Delaware Law and Our Charter Documents

Section 203 of the DGCL

We are subject to Section 203 of the DGCL, which prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years after the date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, with the following exceptions:

 

   

before such date, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

 

   

stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction began, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding (but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder) those shares owned (1) by persons who are directors and also officers and (2) employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

 

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on or after such date, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.

In general, Section 203 defines a “business combination” to include the following:

 

   

any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;

 

   

any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;

 

   

subject to certain exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;

 

   

any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock or any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; and

 

   

the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits by or through the corporation.

In general, Section 203 defines an “interested stockholder” as an entity or person who, together with the person’s affiliates and associates, beneficially owns, or within three years prior to the time of determination of interested stockholder status did own, 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation.

Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws

Among other things, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws:

 

   

permit our board of directors to issue up to 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, with any rights, preferences and privileges as they may designate, including the right to approve an acquisition or other change in control;

 

   

provide that the authorized number of directors may be changed only by resolution of our board of directors;

 

   

provide that our board of directors will be classified into three classes of directors;

 

   

provide that, subject to the rights of any series of preferred stock to elect directors, directors may only be removed for cause, which removal may be effected, subject to any limitation imposed by law, by the holders of 66 2/3% of the voting power of all of our then-outstanding shares of the capital stock entitled to vote generally at an election of directors;

 

   

provide that all vacancies, including newly created directorships, may, except as otherwise required by law, be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of directors then in office, even if less than a quorum;

 

   

require that any action to be taken by our stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of stockholders and not be taken by written consent or electronic transmission;

 

   

provide that stockholders seeking to present proposals before a meeting of stockholders or to nominate candidates for election as directors at a meeting of stockholders must provide advance notice in writing, and also specify requirements as to the form and content of a stockholder’s notice;

 

   

provide that special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by the chairperson of our board of directors, our chief executive officer or by our board of directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the total number of authorized directors; and

 

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do not provide for cumulative voting rights, therefore allowing the holders of a majority of the shares of common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors to elect all of the directors standing for election, if they should so choose.

The amendment of any of these provisions would require approval by the holders of at least majority of the voting power of all of our then-outstanding common stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class.

The combination of these provisions will make it more difficult for our existing stockholders to replace our board of directors as well as for another party to obtain control of us by replacing our board of directors. Because our board of directors has the power to retain and discharge our officers, these provisions could also make it more difficult for existing stockholders or another party to effect a change in management. In addition, the authorization of undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to change our control.

These provisions are intended to enhance the likelihood of continued stability in the composition of our board of directors and its policies and to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to reduce our vulnerability to hostile takeovers and to discourage certain tactics that may be used in proxy fights. However, such provisions could have the effect of discouraging others from making tender offers for our shares and may have the effect of delaying changes in our control or management. As a consequence, these provisions may also inhibit fluctuations in the market price of our stock that could result from actual or rumored takeover attempts. We believe that the benefits of these provisions, including increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure our company, outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging takeover proposals, because negotiation of takeover proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.

Choice of Forum

Our amended and restated bylaws will provide that, unless we consent to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware shall be the sole and exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, any action asserting a claim of breach of fiduciary duty, any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to the DGCL, any action regarding our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws, or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in our securities shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to this provision. Although we believe these provisions benefit us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law for the specified types of actions and proceedings, the provisions may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against us or our directors and officers. Nothing in our amended and restated bylaws, including the exclusive forum provision, precludes stockholders that assert claims under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act from bringing such claims in state or federal court, subject to applicable law.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any debt securities offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Unless the context requires otherwise, whenever we refer to the indenture, we also are referring to any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of a particular series of debt securities.

We will issue the debt securities under the indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the indenture. The indenture will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act. We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will be incorporated by reference from, reports that we file with the SEC.

The following summary of material provisions of the debt securities and the indenture is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements and any related free writing prospectuses related to the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the complete indenture that contains the terms of the debt securities.

General

The indenture does not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. It provides that we may issue debt securities up to the principal amount that we may authorize and may be in any currency or currency unit that we may designate. Except for the limitations on consolidation, merger and sale of all or substantially all of our assets contained in the indenture, the terms of the indenture do not contain any covenants or other provisions designed to give holders of any debt securities protection against changes in our operations, financial condition or transactions involving us.

We may issue the debt securities issued under the indenture as “discount securities,” which means they may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. These debt securities, as well as other debt securities that are not issued at a discount, may be issued with “original issue discount,” or OID, for U.S. federal income tax purposes because of interest payment and other characteristics or terms of the debt securities. Material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to debt securities issued with OID will be described in more detail in any applicable prospectus supplement.

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:

 

   

the title of the series of debt securities;

 

   

any limit upon the aggregate principal amount that may be issued;

 

   

the maturity date or dates;

 

   

the form of the debt securities of the series;

 

   

the applicability of any guarantees;

 

   

whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

   

whether the debt securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

 

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if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such debt securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

 

   

the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

   

our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

   

if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

 

   

the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;

 

   

the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

 

   

any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the debt securities of that series and any security for our obligations with respect to such debt securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of debt securities of that series;

 

   

whether the debt securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a global security or securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such global security or securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual securities; and the depositary for such global security or securities;

 

   

if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at our option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange;

 

   

if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of debt securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

   

additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the particular debt securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

 

   

additions to or changes in the events of default with respect to the securities and any change in the right of the trustee or the holders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such securities to be due and payable;

 

   

additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

 

   

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture;

 

   

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of holders of debt securities issued under the indenture;

 

   

the currency of payment of debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

 

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whether interest will be payable in cash or additional debt securities at our or the holders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

 

   

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which we will pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the debt securities of the series to any holder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

 

   

any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the debt securities of the series; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of the indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

Conversion or Exchange Rights

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or our other securities. We will include provisions as to settlement upon conversion or exchange and whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

Consolidation, Merger or Sale

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the indenture will not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of our assets as an entirety or substantially as an entirety. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets (other than any subsidiary of ours) must assume all of our obligations under the indenture or the debt securities, as appropriate.

Events of Default under the Indenture

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indenture with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

   

if we fail to pay any installment of interest on any series of debt securities, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by us in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

 

   

if we fail to pay the principal of, or premium, if any, on any series of debt securities as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to such series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

   

if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant or agreement contained in the debt securities or the indenture, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such is a notice of default thereunder, from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

 

   

if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur.

 

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If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than an event of default specified in the last bullet point above, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately. If an event of default specified in the last bullet point above occurs with respect to us, the principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding shall be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver shall cure the default or event of default.

Subject to the terms of the indenture, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

   

the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

 

   

subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indenture or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies only if:

 

   

the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

 

   

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request,

 

   

such holders have offered to the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred by the trustee in compliance with the request; and

 

   

the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 90 days after the notice, request and offer.

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indenture.

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

We and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters:

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture or in the debt securities of any series;

 

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to comply with the provisions described above under “Description of Debt Securities—Consolidation, Merger or Sale;”

 

   

to provide for uncertificated debt securities in addition to or in place of certificated debt securities;

 

   

to add to our covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities, to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in the indenture;

 

   

to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of debt securities, as set forth in the indenture;

 

   

to make any change that does not adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series in any material respect;

 

   

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the debt securities of any series as provided above under “Description of Debt Securities—General” to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of the indenture or any series of debt securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities;

 

   

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under any indenture by a successor trustee; or

 

   

to comply with any requirements of the SEC in connection with the qualification of any indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

In addition, under the indenture, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

   

extending the fixed maturity of any debt securities of any series;

 

   

reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or reducing any premium payable upon the redemption of any series of any debt securities; or

 

   

reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment, supplement, modification or waiver.

Discharge

Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including obligations to:

 

   

provide for payment;

 

   

register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

 

   

replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

 

   

pay principal of and premium and interest on any debt securities of the series;

 

   

maintain paying agencies;

 

   

hold monies for payment in trust;

 

   

recover excess money held by the trustee;

 

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compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

 

   

appoint any successor trustee.

In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, any premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

Form, Exchange and Transfer

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indenture provides that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, or another depositary named by us and identified in the applicable prospectus supplement with respect to that series. To the extent the debt securities of a series are issued in global form and as book-entry, a description of terms relating to any book-entry securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

Subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will impose no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

   

issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

 

   

register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

Information Concerning the Trustee

The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indenture at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.

 

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Payment and Paying Agents

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check that we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

Governing Law

The indenture and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is applicable.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplements and free writing prospectuses, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, which may consist of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and may be issued in one or more series. Warrants may be issued independently or together with common stock, preferred stock or debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement, and may be attached to or separate from those securities. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus. The terms of any warrants offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. However, no prospectus supplement will fundamentally change the terms that are set forth in this prospectus or offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of its effectiveness.

We have filed forms of the warrant agreements as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant agreement, if any, including a form of warrant certificate, that describes the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering. The following summaries of material provisions of the warrants and the warrant agreements are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the warrant agreement and warrant certificate applicable to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements related to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectuses, and the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants.

General

In the applicable prospectus supplement, we will describe the terms of the series of warrants being offered, including, to the extent applicable:

 

   

the title of such securities;

 

   

the offering price or prices and aggregate number of warrants offered;

 

   

the currency or currencies for which the warrants may be purchased;

 

   

the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;

 

   

the date on and after which the warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

 

   

the minimum or maximum amount of such warrants which may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of one warrant and the price at which, and currency in which, this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which, and the currency in which, these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

   

the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreements and the warrants;

 

   

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

 

   

the terms of any rights to force the exercise of the warrants;

 

   

any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

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the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

 

   

the manner in which the warrant agreements and warrants may be modified;

 

   

a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations of holding or exercising the warrants;

 

   

the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.

Before exercising their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon such exercise, including:

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the right to receive dividends, if any, or payments upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up or to exercise voting rights, if any; or

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the right to receive payments of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities purchasable upon exercise or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture.

Exercise of Warrants

Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants by delivering the warrant certificate representing the warrants to be exercised together with specified information, and paying the required amount to the warrant agent in immediately available funds, as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will set forth on the reverse side of the warrant certificate and in the applicable prospectus supplement the information that the holder of the warrant will be required to deliver to the warrant agent in connection with the exercise of the warrant.

On receipt of payment and the warrant or warrant certificate, as applicable, properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent, if any, or any other office, including ours, indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, issue and deliver the securities purchasable on such exercise. If less than all of the warrants (or the warrants represented by such warrant certificate) are exercised, a new warrant or a new warrant certificate, as applicable, will be issued for the remaining warrants.

Governing Law

Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the warrants and warrant agreements, and any claim, controversy or dispute arising under or related to the warrants or warrant agreements, will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Warrants

Each warrant agent, if any, will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant. A single bank or trust company may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable upon exercise of, its warrants.

 

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LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

We can issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee or depositary maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names, as “indirect holders” of those securities. As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.

Book-Entry Holders

We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.

Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Global securities will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for global securities, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.

As a result, investors in a global security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not legal holders, of the securities.

Street Name Holders

We may terminate a global security or issue securities that are not issued in global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.

For securities held in street name, we or any applicable trustee or depositary will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we or any such trustee or depositary will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not holders, of those securities.

Legal Holders

Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee or third party employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.

 

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For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the legal holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that legal holder is required, under agreements with its participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so. Similarly, we may want to obtain the approval of the holders to amend an indenture, to relieve us of the consequences of a default or of our obligation to comply with a particular provision of an indenture, or for other purposes. In such an event, we would seek approval only from the legal holder, and not the indirect holders, of the securities. Whether and how the legal holders contact the indirect holders is up to the legal holders.

Special Considerations for Indirect Holders

If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form because the securities are represented by one or more global securities or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:

 

   

how it handles securities payments and notices;

 

   

whether it imposes fees or charges;

 

   

how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;

 

   

whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a holder, if that is permitted in the future;

 

   

how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and

 

   

if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.

Global Securities

A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.

Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we issue to, deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, DTC, New York, New York, will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.

A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under “—Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated.” As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and legal holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a legal holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.

If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued as a global security, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.

 

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Special Considerations for Global Securities

As an indirect holder, an investor’s rights relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers. We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.

If securities are issued only as global securities, an investor should be aware of the following:

 

   

an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations we describe below;

 

   

an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank or broker for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as we describe above;

 

   

an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;

 

   

an investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in the global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;

 

   

the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in the global security;

 

   

we and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in the global security, nor will we or any applicable trustee supervise the depositary in any way;

 

   

the depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in the global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your broker or bank may require you to do so as well; and

 

   

financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in the global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities.

There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries.

Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated

In a few special situations described below, a global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks or brokers to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own names, so that they will be direct holders. We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above.

Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the global security will terminate when the following special situations occur:

 

   

if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;

 

   

if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or

 

   

if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.

 

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The applicable prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and neither we nor any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell the securities from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods. We may sell the securities to or through underwriters or dealers, through agents or directly to one or more purchasers. We may distribute securities from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

   

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

We may also sell equity securities covered by this registration statement in an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act. Such offering may be made into an existing trading market for such securities in transactions at other than a fixed price, either:

 

   

on or through the facilities of The Nasdaq Global Select Market or any other securities exchange or quotation or trading service on which such securities may be listed, quoted or traded at the time of sale; and/or

 

   

to or through a market maker other than on The Nasdaq Global Select Market or such other securities exchanges or quotation or trading services.

Such at the market offerings, if any, may be conducted by underwriters acting as principal or agent.

A prospectus supplement or supplements (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

   

the name or names of any underwriters, dealers or agents, if any;

 

   

the purchase price of the securities and the proceeds we will receive from the sale;

 

   

any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

 

   

any agency fees or underwriting discounts and other items constituting agents’ or underwriters’ compensation;

 

   

any public offering price;

 

   

any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

 

   

any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.

Only underwriters named in the prospectus supplement are underwriters of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement.

If underwriters are used in the sale, they will acquire the securities for their own account and may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. The obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to the conditions set forth in the applicable underwriting agreement. We may offer the securities to the public through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or by underwriters without a syndicate. Subject to certain conditions, the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers may change from time to time. We may use underwriters with whom we have a material relationship. We will describe in the prospectus supplement, naming the underwriter, the nature of any such relationship.

 

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We may sell securities directly or through agents we designate from time to time. We will name any agent involved in the offering and sale of securities, and we will describe any commissions we will pay the agent in the prospectus supplement. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, our agent will act on a best-efforts basis for the period of its appointment.

We may authorize agents or underwriters to solicit offers by certain types of institutional investors to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. We will describe the conditions to these contracts and the commissions we must pay for solicitation of these contracts in the prospectus supplement.

We may provide agents and underwriters with indemnification against civil liabilities related to this offering, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribution with respect to payments that the agents or underwriters may make with respect to these liabilities. Agents and underwriters may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business.

All securities we offer, other than common stock, will be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any underwriters may make a market in these securities, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot guarantee the liquidity of the trading markets for any securities.

Any underwriter may engage in overallotment, stabilizing transactions, short covering transactions and penalty bids. Overallotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum. Short covering transactions involve purchases of the securities in the open market after the distribution is completed to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a stabilizing or covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of the activities at any time. These transactions may be effected on any exchange or over-the-counter market or otherwise.

Any underwriters who are qualified market makers on The Nasdaq Global Select Market may engage in passive market making transactions in the securities on The Nasdaq Global Select Market in accordance with Rule 103 of Regulation M, during the business day prior to the pricing of the offering, before the commencement of offers or sales of the securities. Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security; if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, however, the passive market maker’s bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded. Passive market making may stabilize the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time.

LEGAL MATTERS

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, certain legal matters in connection with the offering and the validity of the securities offered by this prospectus, and any supplement thereto, will be passed upon by Cooley LLP, New York, New York. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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EXPERTS

The financial statements incorporated in this Prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

This prospectus is part of the registration statement on Form S-3 we filed with the SEC under the Securities Act. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front page of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of the securities offered by this prospectus.

We must comply with the informational requirements of the Exchange Act, and we are required to file reports and proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy these reports, proxy statements and other information on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov, which contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers like us that file electronically with the SEC. We maintain a website at www.oysterpointrx.com. The information contained in, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference herein and is not part of this prospectus.

Statements contained in this prospectus as to the contents of any contract or other document are not necessarily complete, and in each instance we refer you to the copy of the contract or document filed as an exhibit to the registration statement, each such statement being qualified in all respects by such reference.

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information that we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus. Information in this prospectus supersedes information incorporated by reference that we filed with the SEC prior to the date of this prospectus, while information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus. We incorporate by reference into this prospectus the following documents:

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on February 27, 2020;

 

   

the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December  31, 2019 from our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A, as filed with the SEC on April 22, 2020;

 

   

our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on May 11, 2020, for the quarter ended June  30, 2020, filed with the SEC on August 5, 2020 and for the quarter ended September 30, 2020, filed with the SEC on November 5, 2020;

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on March 30, 2020, May 11, 2020, May 15, 2020, June  5, 2020 and October 9, 2020; and

 

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the description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on October 28, 2019, including any amendments or reports filed for the purposes of updating this description.

We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus any future filings made by us with the SEC (other than current reports or portions thereof furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items and other portions of documents that are furnished, but not filed, pursuant to applicable rules promulgated by the SEC) that are filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (i) after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement, and (ii) after the effectiveness of the registration statement but prior to the termination of the offering of the securities covered by the applicable prospectus supplement.

We will furnish without charge to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is delivered, upon written or oral request, a copy of any document incorporated by reference. Requests should be addressed to 202 Carnegie Center, Suite 109, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, Attn: Secretary or may be made telephonically at (609) 382-9032. Copies of these filings are also available, without charge, on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov and on our website www.oysterpointrx.com as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed electronically with the SEC. The information contained on our website is not part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.

In accordance with Rule 412 of the Securities Act, any statement contained in a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus shall be deemed modified, superseded or replaced for the purposes of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus or in any other subsequently filed document that also is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference herein modifies or supersedes such statement.

 

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The information in this preliminary prospectus supplement is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus supplement is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to Completion, dated November 5, 2020.

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

(To prospectus dated November    , 2020)

Up to $100,000,000

 

 

LOGO

Common Stock

We have entered into a sales agreement with Cowen and Company, LLC, or Cowen, relating to shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock, $0.001 par value per share, having an aggregate offering price of up to $100,000,000 from time to time through or to Cowen acting as our agent or principal.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “OYST.” On November 4, 2020, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market was $22.49 per share.

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus will be made in sales deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Cowen is not required to sell any specific amount of securities but will act as our sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between Cowen and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

Under the sales agreement, we may also sell shares of common stock to Cowen as principal for its own account, at a price to be agreed upon at the time of sale. If we sell shares to a Cowen as principal, we will enter into a separate terms agreement with Cowen, and we will describe the agreement in a separate prospectus supplement or pricing supplement.

The compensation to Cowen for sales of common stock pursuant to the sales agreement will be an amount equal to 3.0% of the gross proceeds of any shares of common stock sold under the sales agreement. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, Cowen will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Cowen will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Cowen with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

Our business and an investment in our common stock involve significant risk. These risks are described under the caption “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-4 of this prospectus supplement and on page 5 of the accompanying prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus or the accompanying prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

Cowen

The date of this prospectus supplement is                , 2020


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

     S-ii  

MARKET, INDUSTRY AND OTHER DATA

     S-iii  

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

     S-1  

THE OFFERING

     S-3  

RISK FACTORS

     S-4  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     S-6  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     S-8  

DILUTION

     S-9  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     S-11  

LEGAL MATTERS

     S-12  

EXPERTS

     S-12  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     S-12  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

     S-12  

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

This prospectus supplement is part of a registration statement that we have filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. By using a shelf registration statement, we may offer shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $100,000,000 from time to time under this prospectus supplement at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of offering. The $100,000,000 of shares of our common stock that may be sold under this prospectus are included in the $300,000,000 of shares of common stock that may be sold under the registration statement.

We provide information to you about this offering of shares of our common stock in two separate documents that are bound together: (1) this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific details regarding this offering; and (2) the accompanying prospectus, which provides general information, some of which may not apply to this offering. Generally, when we refer to this “prospectus,” we are referring to both documents combined. If information in this prospectus supplement is inconsistent with the accompanying prospectus, you should rely on this prospectus supplement. However, if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement as our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since the earlier dates.

We have not, and Cowen has not, authorized anyone to provide any information other than that contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We and Cowen take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We are not, and Cowen is not, making an offer to sell or soliciting an offer to buy our securities in any jurisdiction where an offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making that offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make an offer or solicitation. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and in any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the sections of this prospectus supplement entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Information Incorporated by Reference.”

We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The distribution of this prospectus and the offering of the common stock in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the common stock and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States. This prospectus does not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.

Unless the context indicates otherwise, references in this prospectus supplement to “Oyster Point,” “the Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar references refer to Oyster Point Pharma, Inc. When we refer to “you,” we mean the holders of common stock of the Company.

 

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MARKET, INDUSTRY AND OTHER DATA

This prospectus supplement, including the information incorporated by reference herein, contains estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business, and the markets for certain drugs, including data regarding the estimated size of those markets. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances reflected in this information. Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained this industry, business, market and other data from reports, research surveys, studies and similar data prepared by third parties, industry, medical and general publications, government data and similar sources. In some cases, we do not expressly refer to the sources from which this data is derived. In that regard, when we refer to one or more sources of this type of data in any paragraph, you should assume that other data of this type appearing in the same paragraph is derived from the same sources, unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

This summary provides a general overview of selected information and does not contain all of the information you should consider before buying our common stock. Therefore, you should read the entire prospectus supplement, accompanying prospectus and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering carefully, including the information incorporated by reference herein and therein, before deciding to invest in our common stock. Investors should carefully consider the information set forth under “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-4 of this prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.

OYSTER POINT PHARMA, INC.

Overview

We are a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of first-in-class pharmaceutical therapies to treat ocular surface diseases. The Company’s lead product candidate OC-01 (varenicline), a highly selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist, is being developed as a nasal spray to treat the signs and symptoms of dry eye disease. OC-01’s novel mechanism of action is designed to re-establish tear film homeostasis by activating the trigeminal parasympathetic pathway and stimulating the glands and cells responsible for natural tear film production. Based on OC-01’s clinical trial results and its novel mechanism of action, the Company believes OC-01, if approved, has the potential to become the new standard of care and redefine how dry eye disease is treated for millions of patients. The Company believes that targeting the parasympathetic nervous system through the use of locally administered cholinergic agonists has the potential to treat a wide range of diseases and disorders. The Company has identified several additional indications, including the ones outside of ophthalmology, where this approach could provide a meaningful benefit to patients.

Since its formation in June 2015, the Company has devoted substantially all of its resources to developing its product candidates. The Company has incurred significant operating losses to date. The Company’s net losses were $48.3 million and $26.0 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively. As of September 30, 2020, the Company had an accumulated deficit of $132.5 million. The Company expects that its operating expenses will increase significantly as it advances its product candidates through preclinical and clinical development, seeks regulatory approval, and prepares for and, if approved, proceeds to commercialization; acquires, discovers, validates and develops additional product candidates; obtains, maintains, protects and enforces its intellectual property portfolio; and hires additional personnel. In addition, the Company has incurred and will continue to incur additional costs associated with operating as a public company.

The Company does not have any products approved for sale and has not generated any revenue since inception. The Company’s ability to generate product revenue will depend on the successful development, regulatory approval and eventual commercialization of one or more of its product candidates. Until such time as it can generate significant revenue from product sales, if ever, the Company expects to finance its operations through private or public equity or debt financings, collaborative or other arrangements with corporate sources, or through other sources of financing. Adequate funding may not be available to the Company on acceptable terms, or at all. If the Company fails to raise capital or enter into such agreements as and when needed, it may have to significantly delay, scale back or discontinue the development and commercialization of its product candidates.

The Company plans to continue to use third-party service providers, including clinical research organizations (CROs) and contract manufacturing organization (CMOs), to carry out its preclinical and clinical development and to manufacture and supply the materials to be used during the development and



 

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commercialization of its product candidates. The Company does not currently have a sales force. If OC-01 is approved, the Company intends to deploy a specialty sales force of approximately 150 to 200 field representatives.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated in Delaware in June 2015. We were spun out from Oculeve, Inc., a Delaware corporation focused on the treatment of dry eye disease, prior to its acquisition by Allergan. Our principal executive offices are located at 202 Carnegie Center, Suite 109, Princeton, New Jersey 08540. Our telephone number is (609) 382-9032. Our website address is www.oysterpointrx.com. Information contained on the website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company

We are an emerging growth company as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (1) December 31, 2023, (2) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion, (3) the last day of the fiscal year in which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer” as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, which would occur if the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates exceeded $700.0 million as of the last business day of the second fiscal quarter of such year or (4) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities during the prior three-year period. An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting requirements and is relieved of certain other significant requirements that are otherwise generally applicable to public companies. As an emerging growth company:

 

   

We will present in this prospectus only two years of audited financial statements, plus unaudited condensed financial statements for any interim period, and related management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations;

 

   

We will avail ourselves of the exemption from the requirement to obtain an attestation and report from our auditors on the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002;

 

   

We will provide less extensive disclosure about our executive compensation arrangements; and

 

   

We will not require stockholder non-binding advisory votes on executive compensation or golden parachute arrangements.

Even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, we may still qualify as a “smaller reporting company,” which would allow us to take advantage of many of the same exemptions from disclosure requirements including reduced disclosure obligations in our periodic reports and proxy statements.



 

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THE OFFERING

 

Common stock offered by us

Shares of our common stock with an aggregate offering price of up to $100,000,000.

 

Common stock outstanding after this offering

Up to 30,291,181 shares, assuming sales at a price of $22.49 per share, which was the closing price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on November 4, 2020. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering.

 

Plan of Distribution

“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time through our sales agent, Cowen and Company, LLC. See “Plan of Distribution” on page S-11.

 

Use of Proceeds

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, for general corporate purposes, which may include, among other things, working capital and funding research and development, and capital expenditures including clinical program progression. See “Use of Proceeds” on page S-8.

 

Risk Factors

Investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should read the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement for a discussion of factors to consider before deciding to purchase shares of our common stock.

 

Nasdaq Global Select Market symbol

“OYST”

The number of shares of common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 25,844,761 shares of common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2020 and excludes, in each case as of September 30, 2020:

 

   

3,205,831 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options to purchase common stock that were outstanding as of September 30, 2020, with a weighted average exercise price of $9.75 per share;

 

   

63,929 shares of our common stock issuable upon the vesting of outstanding restricted stock units as of September 30, 2020;

 

   

2,113,001 shares of common stock reserved for issuance pursuant to future awards under our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under this plan; and

 

   

270,000 shares of common stock reserved for issuance pursuant to future awards under our 2019 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under this plan.

In addition, unless we specifically state otherwise, all information in this prospectus supplement assumes no exercise of outstanding stock options subsequent to September 30, 2020.



 

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RISK FACTORS

You should consider carefully the risks described below and discussed under the section titled “Risk Factors” contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, and in our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act, each of which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in their entirety, together with other information in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and the information and documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering before you make a decision to invest in our common stock. If any of the following events actually occur, our business, operating results, prospects or financial condition could be materially and adversely affected. This could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline and you may lose all or part of your investment. The risks described below are not the only ones that we face. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our business operations. Please also read carefully the section titled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” in this prospectus supplement.

Risks Relating to this Offering

Our management team may invest or spend the proceeds of this offering in ways with which you may not agree or in ways which may not yield a significant return.

Our management will have broad discretion over the use of proceeds from this offering. We intend to use the net proceeds, if any, from this offering for general corporate purposes, which may include, among other things, working capital and funding research and development, and capital expenditures including clinical program progression. Our management will have considerable discretion in the application of the net proceeds, and you will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately. The net proceeds may be used for corporate purposes that do not increase our operating results or enhance the value of our common stock.

You may experience immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value per share of the common stock you purchase.

The price per share of our common stock being offered may be higher than the net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding prior to this offering. Assuming that an aggregate of 4,446,420 shares are sold at a price of $22.49 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on November 4, 2020, for aggregate proceeds of $100 million in this offering, and after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, you will suffer immediate and substantial dilution of $12.47 per share, representing the difference between the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock as of September 30, 2020 after giving effect to this offering and the assumed offering price of $22.49 per share. See the section entitled “Dilution” below for a more detailed discussion of the dilution you will incur if you purchase common stock in this offering.

You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

In order to raise additional capital, we expect to in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock. We cannot assure you that we will be able to sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is equal to or greater than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share in this offering. As of September 30, 2020, approximately 5.7 million shares of common stock that are either subject to outstanding options or reserved for future issuance under our existing equity incentive plans are eligible for sale in the public market to the extent permitted by the provisions of various vesting schedules and Rule 144 and Rule 701 under the Securities Act.

 

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The actual number of shares we will issue under the sales agreement, at any one time or in total, is uncertain.

Subject to certain limitations in the sales agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver a placement notice to Cowen at any time throughout the term of the sales agreement. The number of shares that are sold by Cowen after delivering a placement notice will fluctuate based on the market price of the common shares during the sales period and limits we set with Cowen. Because the price per share of each share sold will fluctuate based on the market price of our common stock during the sales period, it is not possible at this stage to predict the number of shares that will be ultimately issued.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. These statements relate to future events or to our future operating or financial performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performances or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. In some cases, such forward-looking statements are identified by terminology such as “aim,” “anticipate,” “assume,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “due,” “estimate,” “expect,” “goal,” “intend,” “may,” “objective,” “plan,” “predict,” “potential,” “positioned,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would,” and other similar expressions that are predictions of or indicate future events and future trends, or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology. Forward-looking statements may include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

   

the likelihood of the Company’s clinical trials demonstrating safety and efficacy of its product candidates, and other positive results;

 

   

the timing of initiation of the Company’s future clinical trials, and the reporting of data from completed, current and future clinical trials and preclinical studies;

 

   

plans relating to the clinical development of the Company’s product candidates, including the size, number and disease areas to be evaluated;

 

   

the size of the market opportunity and prevalence of dry eye disease (DED) for the Company’s product candidates;

 

   

plans relating to commercializing the Company’s product candidates, if approved, including the geographic areas of focus and sales strategy;

 

   

the success of competing therapies that are or may become available;

 

   

the Company’s estimates of the number of patients in the United States who suffer from DED and the number of patients that will enroll in its clinical trials;

 

   

the beneficial characteristics, safety, efficacy and therapeutic effects of the Company’s product candidates;

 

   

the timing, likelihood or scope of regulatory filings and approval for its product candidates;

 

   

the Company’s ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of its product candidates;

 

   

the Company’s plans relating to the further development and manufacturing of its product candidates, including additional indications for which it may pursue;

 

   

the expected potential benefits of strategic collaborations with third parties and the Company’s ability to attract collaborators with development, regulatory and commercialization expertise;

 

   

existing regulations and regulatory developments in the United States and other jurisdictions;

 

   

the Company’s plans and ability to obtain or protect intellectual property rights, including extensions of existing patent terms where available;

 

   

continued reliance on third parties to conduct additional clinical trials of the Company’s product candidates, and for the manufacture and supply of product candidates, components for preclinical studies and clinical trials and products and components for commercialization of any approved products;

 

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the need to hire additional personnel, and the Company’s ability to attract and retain such personnel

 

   

the potential effects of the SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic on business, operations and clinical development timelines and plans;

 

   

the accuracy of estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

   

the Company’s financial performance;

 

   

the sufficiency of existing capital resources to fund future operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements;

 

   

expectations regarding the period during which the Company will qualify as an emerging growth company under the JOBS Act; and

 

   

our expectations regarding the uses of the net proceeds from any offering under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

The Company has based these forward-looking statements largely on its current expectations and projections about its business, the industry in which it operates and financial trends that may affect business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects, and these forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance or development. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this prospectus supplement and are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus supplement, as well as Item 1A of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 and the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the nine months ended September 30, 2020. Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified, they should not be relied on as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in these forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. Except as required by applicable law, the Company does not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements after the date of this prospectus supplement, whether as a result of any new information, future events or otherwise. You should read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus together with the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of the forward-looking statements in the foregoing documents by these cautionary statements.

In addition, statements that “the Company believes” and similar statements reflect the Company’s beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to the Company as of the date of this prospectus supplement, and while the Company believes such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and the Company’s statements should not be read to indicate that it has conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain, and you are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $100,000,000 from time to time. The amount of proceeds from this offering will depend upon the number of shares of our common stock sold and the market price at which they are sold. There can be no assurance that we will be able to sell any shares under or fully utilize the sales agreement with Cowen as a source of financing. We will retain broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered hereby. We intend to use the net proceeds, if any, from this offering for general corporate purposes, including research and development expenses, general and administrative expenses, sales and marketing expenses, capital expenditures, which may include costs of funding future acquisitions, and working capital. Pending the use of net proceeds, we plan to invest the net proceeds in short- and intermediate-term interest-bearing obligations, investment-grade securities, certificates of deposit or government securities.

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in our common stock, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock after this offering.

Our net tangible book value as of September 30, 2020, was $206.7 million, or $8.00 per share. Net tangible book value per share is determined by dividing our total tangible assets, less total liabilities, by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2020. Dilution in net tangible book value per share represents the difference between the amount per share paid by purchasers of shares of common stock in this offering and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after giving effect to this offering.

After giving effect to the sale of an aggregate of 4,446,420 shares of common stock in this offering at an assumed public offering price of $22.49 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock as reported on the Nasdaq Global Market on November 4, 2020, and after deducting offering commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our net tangible book value as of September 30, 2020, would have been $303.5 million, or $10.02 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $2.02 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $12.47 per share to investors participating in this offering. The following table illustrates this dilution per share to investors participating in this offering:

 

Assumed public offering price per share

      $ 22.49  

Net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2020

   $ 8.00     

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to new investors in offering

   $ 2.02     
  

 

 

    

As adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering

        10.02  
     

 

 

 

Dilution per share to new investors

      $ 12.47  
     

 

 

 

The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $22.49 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $100 million is sold at that price, would cause our as adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to be $10.16 per share and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors to $13.32 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $22.49 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $100 million is sold at that price, would cause our as adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to be $9.88 per share and would decrease the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors to $11.61 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. This information is supplied for illustrative purposes only.

To the extent that outstanding options or warrants are exercised or outstanding restricted stock awards vest, investors purchasing our common stock in this offering will experience further dilution. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our stockholders.

 

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The above discussion and table are based on 25,844,761 shares of common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2020, and excludes, in each case as of September 30, 2020:

 

   

3,205,831 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options to purchase common stock that were outstanding as of September 30, 2020, with a weighted average exercise price of $9.75 per share;

 

   

63,929 shares of our common stock issuable upon the vesting of outstanding restricted stock units as of September 30, 2020; and

 

   

2,113,001 shares of common stock reserved for issuance pursuant to future awards under our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under this plan; and

 

   

270,000 shares of common stock reserved for issuance pursuant to future awards under our 2019 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under this plan.

In addition, unless we specifically state otherwise, all information in this prospectus supplement assumes no exercise of outstanding stock options subsequent to September 30, 2020.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We have entered into a sales agreement with Cowen, under which we may offer and sell from time to time up to $100,000,000 of our common stock through or to Cowen as our sales agent or principal. Sales of our common stock, if any, will be made at market prices by any method that is deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act.

Cowen will offer our common stock subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement on a daily basis or as otherwise agreed upon by us and Cowen. We will designate the maximum amount of common stock to be sold through Cowen on a daily basis or otherwise determine such maximum amount together with Cowen. Subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement, Cowen will use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us. We may instruct Cowen not to sell common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us in any such instruction. Cowen or we may suspend the offering of our common stock being made through Cowen under the sales agreement upon proper notice to the other party. Cowen and we each have the right, by giving written notice as specified in the sales agreement, to terminate the sales agreement in each party’s sole discretion at any time.

The aggregate compensation payable to Cowen as sales agent equals 3.0% of the gross sales price of the shares sold through it pursuant to the sales agreement. We have also agreed to reimburse Cowen up to $50,000 of Cowen’s actual outside legal expenses incurred by Cowen in connection with this offering, and for certain other expenses, including Cowen’s FINRA counsel fees in an amount up to $10,000. We estimate that the total expenses of the offering payable by us, excluding commissions and reimbursements payable to Cowen under the sales agreement, will be approximately $200,000.

The remaining sales proceeds, after deducting any expenses payable by us and any transaction fees imposed by any governmental, regulatory, or self-regulatory organization in connection with the sales, will equal our net proceeds for the sale of such common stock.

Cowen will provide written confirmation to us following the close of trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on each day in which common stock is sold through it as sales agent under the sales agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares of common stock sold through it as sales agent on that day, the volume weighted average price of the shares sold and the net proceeds to us.

We will report at least quarterly the number of shares of common stock sold through Cowen under the sales agreement, the net proceeds to us and the compensation paid by us to Cowen in connection with the sales of common stock.

Settlement for sales of common stock will occur, unless the parties agree otherwise, on the second business day that is also a trading day following the date on which any sales were made in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

Under the sales agreement, we may also sell shares of common stock to Cowen as principal for its own account, at a price to be agreed upon at the time of sale. If we sell shares to a Cowen as principal, we will enter into a separate terms agreement with Cowen, and we will describe the agreement in a separate prospectus supplement or pricing supplement.

In connection with the sales of our common stock on our behalf, Cowen will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation paid to Cowen will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed in the sales agreement to provide indemnification and contribution to Cowen against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. As sales agent, Cowen will not engage in any transactions that stabilizes our common stock.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market and trades under the symbol “OYST.” The transfer agent of our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.

 

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Cowen and/or its affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide, various investment banking and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they have received, and may in the future receive, customary fees.

LEGAL MATTERS

Cooley LLP, New York, New York, will pass upon the validity of the shares of common stock offered hereby. Cowen and Company, LLC is being represented by Latham & Watkins LLP in connection with this offering.

EXPERTS

The financial statements incorporated in this prospectus supplement by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

This prospectus supplement is part of the registration statement on Form S-3 we filed with the SEC under the Securities Act. This prospectus supplement does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus supplement, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus supplement or incorporated by reference. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus supplement is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front page of this prospectus supplement, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus supplement or any sale of the securities offered by this prospectus supplement.

We must comply with the informational requirements of the Exchange Act, and we are required to file reports and proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy these reports, proxy statements and other information on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov, which contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers like us that file electronically with the SEC. We maintain a website at www.oysterpointrx.com. The information contained in, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference herein and is not part of this prospectus supplement.

Statements contained in this prospectus supplement as to the contents of any contract or other document are not necessarily complete, and in each instance we refer you to the copy of the contract or document filed as an exhibit to the registration statement, each such statement being qualified in all respects by such reference.

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information that we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus supplement. Information in this prospectus supplement supersedes information incorporated by reference that we filed with the SEC prior to the date of this prospectus supplement, while information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the

 

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information in this prospectus supplement. We incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement the following documents:

 

   

our Annual Report on Form  10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on February 27, 2020;

 

   

the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December  31, 2019 from our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A, as filed with the SEC on April 22, 2020;

 

   

our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on May 11, 2020, for the quarter ended June  30, 2020, filed with the SEC on August 5, 2020 and for the quarter ended September 30, 2020, filed with the SEC on November 5, 2020;

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on March 30, 2020, May 11, 2020, May 15, 2020, June  5, 2020 and October 9, 2020; and

 

   

the description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form  8-A filed with the SEC on October 28, 2019, including any amendments or reports filed for the purposes of updating this description.

We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement any future filings made by us with the SEC (other than current reports or portions thereof furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items and other portions of documents that are furnished, but not filed, pursuant to applicable rules promulgated by the SEC) that are filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (i) after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement is a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement, and (ii) after the effectiveness of the registration statement but prior to the termination of the offering of the securities covered by the applicable prospectus supplement.

We will furnish without charge to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is delivered, upon written or oral request, a copy of any document incorporated by reference. Requests should be addressed to 202 Carnegie Center, Suite 109, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, Attn: Secretary or may be made telephonically at (609) 382-9032. Copies of these filings are also available, without charge, on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov and on our website www.oysterpointrx.com as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed electronically with the SEC. The information contained on our website is not part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.

In accordance with Rule 412 of the Securities Act, any statement contained in a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus shall be deemed modified, superseded or replaced for the purposes of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus or in any other subsequently filed document that also is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference herein modifies or supersedes such statement.

 

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Up to $100,000,000

 

 

LOGO

Common Stock

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

 

Cowen

                , 2020

 

 

 


Table of Contents

PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN THE PROSPECTUS

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

The following table sets forth the estimated costs and expenses, other than underwriting discounts and commissions, payable by us in connection with the offering of the securities being registered. All the amounts shown are estimates, except for the SEC registration fee and the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., or FINRA, filing fee.

 

SEC registration fee

   $ 32,730  

FINRA filing fee

     45,500  

Accounting fees and expenses

     *  

Legal fees and expenses

     *  

Transfer agent fees and expenses

     *  

Trustee fees and expenses

     *  

Printing and miscellaneous expenses

     *  
  

 

 

 

Total

   $         *  
  

 

 

 

 

*

These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and, accordingly, cannot be estimated at this time.

Item 15. Indemnification of Officers and Directors

The registrant’s amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws provide for indemnification of the registrant’s directors and officers to the fullest extent permitted by law. Insofar as indemnification for liabilities under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, may be permitted to directors, officers or controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the registrant’s amended and restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws and the Delaware General Corporation Law, or DGCL, the registrant has been informed that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

Section 102(b)(7) of the DGCL provides that a certificate of incorporation may include a provision that eliminates or limits the personal liability of a director to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except for liability (i) for any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the Company or its stockholders, (ii) for acts or omissions not in good faith or that involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, (iii) under Section 174 of the DGCL, relating to prohibited dividends or distributions or the repurchase or redemption of stock or (iv) for any transaction from which the director derives an improper personal benefit. The registrant’s amended and restated certificate of incorporation includes such a provision. As a result of this provision, the registrant and its stockholders may be unable to obtain monetary damages from a director for breach of his or her duty of care.

As permitted under the DGCL, the registrant has entered into indemnification agreements with each of its directors and executive officers that require the registrant to indemnify such persons against any and all expenses (including attorneys’, witness or other professional fees), and unless in connection with a proceeding by or in the right of the registrant, any and all judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement, actually and reasonably incurred by such persons or on such persons’ behalf in connection with any proceeding, whether actual or threatened, to which any such person may be involved as a party or otherwise by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or an executive officer of the registrant or is or was serving at the request of the registrant as a director, officer, employee, agent or fiduciary of another enterprise, provided such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the registrant and, with respect to any criminal proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe such person’s conduct

 

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was unlawful. Under these agreements, the registrant is not required to provide indemnification for certain matters, including:

 

   

indemnification beyond that permitted by applicable law;

 

   

except as provided in the indemnification agreements, an accounting of profits made from the purchase and sale (or sale and purchase) by such director or executive officer of securities of the registrant within the meaning of Section 16(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, or similar provisions of state statutory law or common law;

 

   

except as provided in the indemnification agreements, any reimbursement of the registrant by such director or executive officer of any bonus or other incentive-based or equity-based compensation or of any profits realized by such director or executive officer from the sale of securities of the registrant, as required in each case under the Exchange Act; or

 

   

except as provided in the indemnification agreements, in connection with any proceeding initiated by such director or executive officer, unless (i) the registrant’s board of directors authorized the proceeding prior to its initiation or (ii) the registrant provides the indemnification, in its sole discretion, pursuant to the powers vested in the registrant under applicable law.

The indemnification agreements also set forth certain procedures, presumptions and remedies that will apply in the event of a claim for indemnification thereunder.

Any underwriting agreement that we may enter into may provide for indemnification by any underwriters, of us, our directors, our officers who sign the registration statement and our controlling persons for some liabilities, including liabilities arising under the Securities Act.

Item 16. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

(a) Exhibits.

 

Exhibit
Number

  

Description of Document

   Form    File No.    Filing Date
  1.1*    Form of Underwriting Agreement.         
  1.2    Sales Agreement, dated November 5, 2020, by and between the Registrant and Cowen and Company, LLC.         
  3.1    Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant.    8-K    001-39112    November 5, 2019
  3.2    Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Registrant.    8-K    001-39112    November 5, 2019
  4.1    Form of Common Stock Certificate.    S-1/A    333-234104    October 15, 2019
  4.2    Amended and Restated Investor Rights Agreement among the Registrant and certain of its stockholders, dated February 15, 2019.    S-1    333-234104    October 4, 2019
  4.4*    Specimen Preferred Stock Certificate and Form of Certificate of Designation of Preferred Stock.         
  4.5    Form of Indenture between the Registrant and one or more trustees to be named.         
  4.6*    Form of Debt Securities.         
  4.7    Form of Common Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.         

 

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Exhibit
Number

  

Description of Document

   Form    File No.    Filing Date
  4.8    Form of Preferred Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.         
  4.9    Form of Debt Securities Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.         
  5.1    Opinion of Cooley LLP.         
23.1    Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm.         
23.2    Consent of Cooley LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1).         
24.1    Power of Attorney (included on signature page).         
25.1**    Statement of Eligibility of Trustee under the Indenture.         

 

*

To be filed, if applicable, by amendment or by a report filed under the Exchange Act and incorporated herein by reference.

**

To be filed, if applicable, in accordance with the requirements of Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and Rule 5b-3 thereunder.

Item 17. Undertakings

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

  (i)

To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

 

  (ii)

To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

  (iii)

To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

provided, however, that paragraphs (1)(i), (1)(ii) and (1)(iii) above do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in this registration statement or are contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of this registration statement.

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

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(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

 

  (i)

Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

  (ii)

Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

  (i)

Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

  (ii)

Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

  (iii)

The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

  (iv)

Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

(6) That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(7) That for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, (i) the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of the registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and

 

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contained in the form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(l) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be a part of the registration statement as of the time it was declared effective; and (ii) each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offing of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(8) To file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of New York, State of New York, on November 5, 2020.

 

OYSTER POINT PHARMA, INC.
By:   /s/ Jeffrey Nau, Ph.D., M.M.S.
    Jeffrey Nau, Ph.D., M.M.S.
    President and Chief Executive Officer

POWER OF ATTORNEY

KNOW ALL BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Jeffrey Nau, Ph.D., M.M.S. and Daniel Lochner, and each of them, as his or her true and lawful attorney-in-fact and agent, with the full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him or her and in his or her name, place or stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments to this Registration Statement (including post-effective amendments) to this Registration Statement (or any other registration statement for the same offering that is to be effective upon filing pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended), and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in connection therewith, as fully to all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents, or any of them, or their or his or her substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this Registration Statement on Form S-3 has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature

 

Title

 

Date

/s/ Jeffrey Nau, Ph.D., M.M.S.

Jeffrey Nau, Ph.D., M.M.S.

 

President and Chief Executive Officer and Director

(Principal Executive Officer)

 

November 5, 2020

/s/ Daniel Lochner

Daniel Lochner

 

Chief Financial Officer

(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)

 

November 5, 2020

/s/ Ali Behbahani

Ali Behbahani

 

Chair of the Board

 

November 5, 2020

/s/ Mark Murray

Mark Murray

 

Director

 

November 5, 2020

/s/ Michael Atieh

Michael Atieh

 

Director

 

November 5, 2020

/s/ William J. Link

William J. Link

 

Director

 

November 5, 2020

/s/ Clare Ozawa

Clare Ozawa

 

Director

 

November 5, 2020

/s/ Benjamin Tsai

Benjamin Tsai

 

Director

 

November 5, 2020

EX-1.2

Exhibit 1.2

OYSTER POINT PHARMA, INC.

$100,000,000

COMMON STOCK

SALES AGREEMENT

November 5, 2020

Cowen and Company, LLC

599 Lexington Avenue

New York, NY 10022

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Oyster Point Pharma, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”), as follows:

1.     Issuance and Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein and any Terms Agreement (defined below), it may issue and sell to or through Cowen, acting as agent and/or principal, shares (the “Shares”) of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share (the “Common Stock”), having an aggregate offering price of up to $100,000,000. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitation set forth in this Section 1 on the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock issued and sold under this Agreement and any Terms Agreement shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and Cowen shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance. The issuance and sale of Common Stock through Cowen will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) to be filed by the Company and after such Registration Statement has been declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”), although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to use the Registration Statement (as defined below) to issue the Common Stock.

The Company has filed or will file, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Securities Act”), with the Commission a registration statement on Form S-3, including a base prospectus, relating to certain securities, including the Common Stock, to be issued from time to time by the Company, and which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Exchange Act”). The Company has prepared a prospectus specifically relating to the Shares (the “ATM Prospectus”) to the base prospectus included as part of such registration statement, and shall, if necessary, prepare a prospectus supplement specifically relating to the Shares (the “Prospectus Supplement”) to the base prospectus included as part of such registration statement. The Company shall furnish to Cowen, for use by Cowen, copies of the prospectus included as part of such registration statement, as supplemented by the Prospectus Supplement, if any, relating to the Shares. Except where the


context otherwise requires, such registration statement, and any post-effective amendment thereto, as amended when it becomes effective, including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B or 462(b) of the Securities Act, or any subsequent registration statement on Form S-3 filed pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act by the Company to cover any Shares, is herein called the “Registration Statement.” The base prospectus, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in the Registration Statement, as it may be supplemented by the ATM Prospectus and the Prospectus Supplement, if any, in the form in which such prospectus, ATM Prospectus and/or Prospectus Supplement have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, together with any “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433 of the Securities Act regulations (“Rule 433), relating to the Shares that (i) is consented to by Cowen (including any free writing prospectus prepared by the Company solely for use in connection with the offering contemplated by a particular Terms Agreement), hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus,” (ii) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company or (iii) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i), in each case in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g), is herein called the “Prospectus.” Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein, and any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing after the execution hereof of any document with the Commission deemed to be incorporated by reference therein. For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or to any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include any copy filed with the Commission pursuant to the Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval system (“EDGAR”).

2.     Agency and Principal Transactions. (a) Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell the Shares hereunder through Cowen, acting as agent (each, an “Agency Transaction”), it will notify Cowen by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) (a “Placement Notice”) containing the parameters in accordance with which it desires the Shares to be sold, which shall at a minimum include the number or dollar amount of Shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number or dollar amount of Shares that may be sold in any one Trading Day (as defined in Section 3) and any minimum price below which sales may not be made, a form of which containing such minimum sales parameters necessary is attached hereto as Schedule 1. The Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Schedule 2 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such schedule), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from Cowen set forth on Schedule 2, as such Schedule 2 may be amended from time to time. The Placement Notice shall be effective upon receipt by Cowen unless and until (i) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, Cowen declines to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, which declination must occur within two (2) Business Days of the receipt of the Placement Notice, (ii) the entire amount of the Shares under the Placement Notice have been sold, (iii) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Company suspends or terminates the Placement Notice, (iv) the Company

 

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issues a subsequent Placement Notice with parameters superseding or amending those on the earlier dated Placement Notice, or (v) this Agreement has been terminated under the provisions of Section 11. The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to Cowen in connection with the sale of the Shares shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 3. It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor Cowen will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to an Agency Transaction or any Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to Cowen and Cowen does not decline such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control.

(b) The Company may also offer to sell the Shares directly to Cowen, as principal, in which event such parties shall enter into a separate agreement (each, a “Terms Agreement”) in substantially the form of Schedule 2(b) hereto (with such changes thereto as may be agreed upon by the Company and Cowen), relating to such sale in accordance with Section 3(b) hereof (each such transaction being referred to as a “Principal Transaction”).

3.     Sale of Shares by Cowen. (a) Subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, upon the Company’s delivery of a Placement Notice with respect to an Agency Transaction, and unless the sale of the Shares described therein has been declined, suspended, or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, Cowen, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the Nasdaq Stock Market, Inc. (“Nasdaq”) to sell such Shares up to the amount specified, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Placement Notice. Cowen will provide written confirmation to the Company (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the Company set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Shares hereunder setting forth the number of Shares sold on such day, the volume-weighted average price of the Shares sold, and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company. In the event the Company engages Cowen for a sale of Shares in an Agency Transaction that would constitute a “block” within the meaning of Rule 10b-18(a)(5) under the Exchange Act (a “Block Sale”), the Company will provide Cowen, at Cowen’s reasonable request and upon reasonable advance notice to the Company, on or prior to the Settlement Date, the opinions of counsel, accountant’s letter and officers’ certificates set forth in Section 8 hereof, each dated the Settlement Date, and such other documents and information as Cowen shall reasonably request. Cowen may sell Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that Cowen will be successful in selling Shares, and (ii) Cowen will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Shares for any reason other than a failure by Cowen to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such Shares as required under this Section 3. For the purposes hereof, “Trading Day” means any day on which the Company’s Common Stock is purchased and sold on the principal market on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted.

 

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(b)(i) If the Company wishes to issue and sell the Shares to Cowen pursuant to this Agreement in a Principal Transaction, it will notify Cowen of the proposed terms of the Principal Transaction. If Cowen, acting as principal, wishes to accept such proposed terms (which it may decline to do for any reason in its sole discretion) or, following discussions with the Company, wishes to accept amended terms, the Company and Cowen shall enter into a Terms Agreement setting forth the terms of such Principal Transaction.

(ii) The terms set forth in a Terms Agreement shall not be binding on the Company or Cowen unless and until the Company and Cowen have each executed and delivered such Terms Agreement accepting all of the terms of such Terms Agreement. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Terms Agreement, the terms of such Terms Agreement shall control.

(iii) Each sale of the Shares to Cowen in a Principal Transaction shall be made in accordance with the terms of this Agreement and a Terms Agreement, which shall provide for the sale of such Shares to, and the purchase thereof by, Cowen. A Terms Agreement may also specify certain provisions relating to the reoffering of such Shares by Cowen. The commitment of Cowen to purchase the Shares pursuant to any Terms Agreement shall be deemed to have been made on the basis of the representations, warranties and agreements of the Company contained, and shall be subject to the terms and conditions set forth, in this Agreement and such Terms Agreement. Any such Terms Agreement shall specify the number of the Shares to be purchased by Cowen pursuant thereto, the price to be paid to the Company for such Shares, any provisions relating to rights of, and default by, Cowen in the reoffering of the Shares, and the time, date (each such time and date being referred to herein as a “Principal Settlement Date”) and place of delivery of and payment for such Shares.

(c)    Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, the Company shall not offer, sell or deliver, or request the offer or sale, of any Shares pursuant to this Agreement (whether in an Agency Transaction or a Principal Transaction) and, by notice to Cowen given by telephone (confirmed promptly by email), shall cancel any instructions for the offer or sale of any Shares, and Cowen shall not be obligated to offer or sell any Shares, (i) during any period in which the Company is, or would reasonably be deemed to be, in possession of material non-public information, or (ii) at any time from and including the date on which the Company shall issue a press release containing, or shall otherwise publicly announce, its earnings, revenues or other results of operations (an “Earnings Announcement”) through and including the time that the Company files a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or an Annual Report on Form 10-K that includes consolidated financial statements as of and for the same period or periods, as the case may be, covered by such Earnings Announcement.

4.     Suspension of Sales.

(a)    The Company or Cowen may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable facsimile transmission or email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2), suspend any sale of Shares; provided, however, that such suspension shall not affect or impair either party’s obligations with respect to any Shares sold hereunder prior to

 

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the receipt of such notice. While a suspension is in effect any obligation under section 7(m), 7(n) and 7(o) with respect to delivery of certificates, opinion, or comfort letters to Cowen, shall be waived. Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against the other unless it is made to one of the individuals named on Schedule 2 hereto, as such schedule may be amended from time to time.

(b)    If either Cowen or the Company has reason to believe that the exemptive provisions set forth in Rule 101(c)(1) of Regulation M under the Exchange Act are not satisfied with respect to the Common Stock, it shall promptly notify the other party, and Cowen may, at its sole discretion, suspend sales of the Shares under this Agreement.

(c)    Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, during any period in which the Registration Statement is no longer effective under the Securities Act, the Company shall promptly notify Cowen, the Company shall not request the sale of any Shares, and Cowen shall not be obligated to sell or offer to sell any Shares.

5.     Settlement.

(a)     Settlement of Shares. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Shares in an Agency Transaction will occur on the second (2nd) Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, an “Agency Settlement Date” and the first such Agency Settlement Date, the “First Delivery Date”; and any Agency Settlement Date and Principal Settlement Date shall be referred to as a “Settlement Date”)). The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate sales price received by Cowen at which such Shares were sold, after deduction for (i) Cowen’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof or pursuant to any applicable Terms Agreement, (ii) any other amounts due and payable by the Company to Cowen hereunder pursuant to Section 7(g) (Expenses) hereof, and (iii) any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales.

(b)     Delivery of Shares. On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Shares being sold by crediting Cowen’s or its designee’s account (provided Cowen shall have given the Company written notice of such designee prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian (“DWAC”) System or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto which in all cases shall be freely tradeable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form. On each Settlement Date, Cowen will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on, or prior to, the Settlement Date. Cowen will be responsible for providing DWAC instructions or instructions for delivery by other means with regard to the transfer of the Shares being sold. The Company agrees that if the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver duly authorized Shares on a Settlement Date through no fault of Cowen, the Company agrees that in addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 9(a) (Indemnification and Contribution) hereto, it will (i) hold Cowen harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or reasonable and documented expense (including reasonable and documented legal fees

 

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and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company and (ii) pay to Cowen (without duplication) any commission, discount, or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default.

6.     Representations and Warranties of the Company. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, Cowen that as of (i) the date of this Agreement, (ii) each date on which the Company executes and delivers a Terms Agreement, (iii) each Time of Sale (defined below), (iv) each Settlement Date, and (v) each Bring-Down Date (as defined below)(each such date included in (i) through (v) above, a “Representation Date”):

(a)     Compliance with Registration Requirements. The Registration Statement and any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement have been declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act. The Company has complied to the Commission’s satisfaction with all requests of the Commission for additional or supplemental information related to the Registration Statement. No stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement is in effect and no proceedings for such purpose have been instituted or are pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, contemplated or threatened by the Commission. The Company meets the requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act. The sale of the Shares hereunder meets the requirements or General Instruction I.B.1 of Form S-3.

(b)     No Misstatement or Omission. The Prospectus when filed complied and, as amended or supplemented, if applicable, will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act. Each of the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any post-effective amendments or supplements thereto, at the time it became effective or its date, as applicable, complied and as of each Representation Date, complied and will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act and did not and, as of each Representation Date, did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. The Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, as of its date, did not and, as of each Representation Date, will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The representations and warranties set forth in the two immediately preceding sentences do not apply to statements in or omissions from the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, or any post-effective amendment thereto, or the Prospectus, or any amendments or supplements thereto, made in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to Agent’s Information (defined below). There are no contracts or other documents required to be described in the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement which have not been described or filed as required. As used herein, “Time of Sale” means (i) with respect to each offering of Shares pursuant to this Agreement, the time of Cowen’s initial entry into contracts with purchasers for the sale of such Shares and (ii) with respect to each offering of Shares pursuant to any relevant Terms Agreement, the time of sale of such Shares to Cowen.

(c)     Offering Materials Furnished to Cowen. The Company has delivered to Cowen one complete copy of the Registration Statement and a copy of each consent and certificate of experts filed as a part thereof, and conformed copies of the Registration Statement (without exhibits) and the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, in such quantities and at such places as Cowen has

 

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reasonably requested. The Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus (to the extent any such Permitted Free Writing Prospectus was required to be filed with the Commission) delivered to Cowen for use in connection with the public offering of the Shares contemplated herein or by any Terms Agreement have been and will be identical to the versions of such documents transmitted to the Commission for filing via EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S-T.

(d)     Emerging Growth Company. The Company is an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act. The Company agrees to notify Cowen promptly upon the Company ceasing to be an emerging growth company.

(e)     Not an Ineligible Issuer. The Company currently is not an “ineligible issuer,” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act. The Company agrees to notify Cowen promptly upon the Company becoming an “ineligible issuer.”

(f)     Distribution of Offering Material By the Company. The Company has not distributed and will not distribute, prior to the completion of Cowen’s distribution of the Shares, any offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Shares other than the Prospectus or the Registration Statement.

(g)     The Sales Agreement; Terms Agreement. This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by, and is a valid and binding agreement of, the Company, enforceable in accordance with its terms, except as rights to indemnification hereunder may be limited by applicable law and except as the enforcement hereof may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or other similar laws relating to or affecting the rights and remedies of creditors or by general equitable principles. Any Terms Agreement will have been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and, assuming due authorization, execution and delivery by the other parties thereto, will be a legal, valid and binding agreement of the Company enforceable in accordance with its terms, except as may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally, and by general equitable principles.

(h)     Authorization of the Common Stock. The Shares, when issued and delivered, will be duly authorized for issuance and sale pursuant to this Agreement and any Terms Agreement and, when issued and delivered by the Company against payment therefor pursuant to this Agreement, will be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, free and clear of any pledge, lien, encumbrance, security interest or other claim, and the issuance and sale of the Shares by the Company is not subject to preemptive or other similar rights arising by operation of law, under the organizational documents of the Company or under any agreement to which the Company or any Subsidiary is a party or otherwise.

(i)     No Applicable Registration or Other Similar Rights. There are no persons with registration or other similar rights to have any equity or debt securities registered for sale under the Registration Statement or included in the offering contemplated by this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, except for such rights as have been duly waived.

(j)     No Material Adverse Change. Except as otherwise disclosed in the Prospectus, subsequent to the respective dates as of which information is given in the Prospectus: (i) there has

 

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been no material adverse change, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a material adverse change, in the condition, financial or otherwise, or in the earnings, business, operations or prospects, whether or not arising from transactions in the ordinary course of business, of the Company and its subsidiaries, considered as one entity (any such change is called a “Material Adverse Change”); (ii) the Company and its subsidiaries, considered as one entity, have not incurred any material liability or obligation, indirect, direct or contingent, not in the ordinary course of business nor entered into any material transaction or agreement not in the ordinary course of business: and (iii) there has been no dividend or distribution of any kind declared, paid or made by the Company or, except for regular quarterly dividends publicly announced by the Company or dividends paid to the Company or other subsidiaries, by any of its subsidiaries on any class of capital stock or repurchase or redemption by the Company or any of its subsidiaries of any class of capital stock.

(k)     Independent Accountants. PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, who have certified certain financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries, is an independent registered public accounting firm with respect to the Company and its subsidiaries within the applicable rules and regulations adopted by the Commission and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) and as required by the Securities Act and the Exchange Act.

(l)     Preparation of the Financial Statements. The financial statements (including the related notes thereto) of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus comply in all material respects with the applicable requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, as applicable, and present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries as of the dates indicated and the results of their operations and the changes in their cash flows for the periods specified; such financial statements have been prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) in the United States applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods covered thereby, except in the case of unaudited interim financial statements, which are subject to normal year-end adjustments and do not contain certain footnotes as permitted by the applicable rules of the Commission, and any supporting schedules included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement present fairly in all material respects the information required to be stated therein; and the other financial information included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus has been derived from the accounting records of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries and presents fairly in all material respects the information shown thereby; all disclosures included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus regarding “non-GAAP financial measures” (as such term is defined by the rules and regulations of the Commission) comply with Regulation G of the Exchange Act and Item 10 of Regulation S-K of the Securities Act, to the extent applicable.

(m)     XBRL. The interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

(n)     Incorporation and Good Standing of the Company and its Subsidiaries. The Company and each of its subsidiaries have been duly organized and are validly existing and in

 

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good standing under the laws of their respective jurisdictions of organization, are duly qualified to do business and are in good standing in each jurisdiction in which their respective ownership or lease of property or the conduct of their respective businesses requires such qualification, and have all power and authority necessary to own or hold their respective properties and to conduct the businesses in which they are engaged, except where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing or have such power or authority would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the business, properties, management, financial position, stockholders’ equity, results of operations or prospects of the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole or on the performance by the Company of its obligations under this Agreement and any Terms Agreement. The Company does not have any significant subsidiaries.

(o)     Capital Stock Matters. The Company has an authorized capitalization as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus under the heading “Description of Capital Stock”; all the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company have been duly and validly authorized and issued and are fully paid and non-assessable and are not subject to any pre-emptive or similar rights that have not been duly waived or satisfied; except as described in or expressly contemplated by the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there are no outstanding rights (including, without limitation, pre-emptive rights that have not been duly waived or satisfied), warrants or options to acquire, or instruments convertible into or exchangeable for, any shares of capital stock or other equity interest in the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or any contract, commitment, agreement, understanding or arrangement of any kind relating to the issuance of any capital stock of the Company or any such subsidiary, any such convertible or exchangeable securities or any such rights, warrants or options; the capital stock of the Company conforms in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; and all the outstanding shares of capital stock or other equity interests of each subsidiary owned, directly or indirectly, by the Company have been duly and validly authorized and issued, are fully paid and non-assessable and are owned directly or indirectly by the Company, free and clear of any lien, charge, encumbrance, security interest, restriction on voting or transfer or any other claim of any third party.

(p)     Stock Options. With respect to the stock options (the “Stock Options”) granted pursuant to the stock-based compensation plans of the Company and its subsidiaries (the “Company Stock Plans”), (i) to the knowledge of the Company, each Stock Option intended to qualify as an “incentive stock option” under Section 422 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) so qualifies, (ii) each grant of a Stock Option was duly authorized no later than the date on which the grant of such Stock Option was by its terms to be effective by all necessary corporate action, including, as applicable, approval by the board of directors of the Company (or a duly constituted and authorized committee thereof) and any required stockholder approval by the necessary number of votes or written consents, and to the knowledge of the Company, the award agreement governing such grant (if any) was duly executed and delivered by each party thereto, (iii) each such grant was made in all material respects in accordance with the terms of the Company Stock Plans, the Exchange Act and all other applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements, including the rules of Nasdaq and any other exchange on which Company securities are traded, and (iv) each such grant was properly accounted for in accordance with GAAP in the financial statements (including the related notes) of the Company.

 

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(q)     Non-Contravention of Existing Instruments. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is (i) in violation of its charter or bylaws or similar organizational documents; (ii) in default, and no event has occurred that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would constitute such a default, in the due performance or observance of any term, covenant or condition contained in any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is bound or to which any property or asset of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is subject; or (iii) in violation of any law or statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority having jurisdiction over the Company, except, in the case of clauses (ii) and (iii) above, for any such default or violation that would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change.

(r)     No Consents Required. No consent, approval, authorization, order, registration or qualification of or with any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority is required for the execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, the issuance and sale of the Shares and the consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement or by any Terms Agreement and by the Prospectus, except for (i) the registration of the Shares under the Securities Act, and (ii) such consents, approvals, authorizations, orders and registrations or qualifications as may be required by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”) and under applicable state securities laws in connection with the purchase and distribution of the Shares.

(s)     No Conflicts. The execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement and any Terms Agreement, the issuance and sale of the Shares and the consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement or any Terms Agreement and by the Prospectus will not (i) conflict with or result in a breach or violation of any of the terms or provisions of, or constitute a default under, result in the termination, modification or acceleration of, or result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property, right or asset of the Company or any of its subsidiaries pursuant to, any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is bound or to which any property, right or asset of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is subject, (ii) result in any violation of the provisions of the charter or bylaws or similar organizational documents of the Company or any of its subsidiaries or (iii) result in the violation of any law or statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority having jurisdiction over the Company, except, in the case of clauses (i) and (iii) above, for any such conflict, breach, violation, default, lien, charge or encumbrance that would not, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Change.

(t)     No Material Actions or Proceedings. Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there are no legal, governmental or regulatory investigations, actions, demands, claims, suits, arbitrations, inquiries or proceedings (“Actions”) pending to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is or reasonably expects to be a party or to which any property of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is or reasonably expects to be the subject that, individually or in the aggregate, if determined adversely to the Company or any of its subsidiaries, could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change or adversely affect the consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement or any Terms Agreement; to the knowledge of the Company, no such Actions are threatened or contemplated by any governmental

 

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or regulatory authority or threatened by others; and (i) there are no current or pending Actions that are required under the Securities Act to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus that are not so described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and (ii) there are no statutes, regulations or contracts or other documents that are required under the Securities Act to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement or described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus that are not so filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement or described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.

(u)     All Necessary Permits, etc. The Company and its subsidiaries possess, and are and have been in compliance with the terms of, all licenses, sub-licenses, certificates, permits and other authorizations issued by, and have made all declarations and filings with, the appropriate federal, state, local or foreign governmental or regulatory authorities that are necessary for the ownership or lease of their respective properties or the conduct of their respective businesses as described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, except where the failure to possess or make the same would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change; and except as described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received written notice of any revocation or modification of, or noncompliance with, any such license, sub-license, certificate, permit, registration or authorization or has any reason to believe that any such license, sub-license, certificate, permit, registration or authorization will not be renewed in the ordinary course, except where such revocation, modification or nonrenewal would not be reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change.

(v)     Tax Law Compliance. The Company and its subsidiaries have paid all federal, state, local and foreign taxes and filed all tax returns required to be paid or filed through the date hereof, except where the failure to file would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change; and except as otherwise disclosed in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus or as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change, there is no tax deficiency that has been, or could reasonably be expected to be, asserted against the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any of their respective properties or assets.

(w)     Company Not an “Investment Company”. The Company is not and, immediately after giving effect to the offering and sale of the Shares and the application of the proceeds thereof as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, will not be required to register as an “investment company” or an entity “controlled” by an “investment company” within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder (collectively, the “Investment Company Act”).

(x)     Insurance. The Company and its subsidiaries have insurance covering their respective properties, operations, personnel and businesses, including business interruption insurance, which insurance is in amounts and insures against such losses and risks as are, in the Company’s reasonable judgement, adequate to protect the Company and its subsidiaries and their respective businesses; and neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has (i) received written notice from any insurer or agent of such insurer that capital improvements or other expenditures are required or necessary to be made in order to continue such insurance or (ii) any reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage at reasonable cost from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business.

 

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(y)     No Price Stabilization or Manipulation. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries or, to the knowledge of the Company, its affiliates has taken, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that would reasonably be expected to cause or result in any stabilization or manipulation of the price of the Shares.

(z)     Margin Rules. Neither the issuance, sale and delivery of the Shares nor the application of the proceeds thereof by the Company as described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus will violate Regulation T, U or X of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System or any other regulation of such Board of Governors.

(aa)     Forward-Looking Statements. No forward-looking statement (within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act) included or incorporated by reference in any of the Registration Statement or the Prospectus has been made or reaffirmed without a reasonable basis or has been disclosed other than in good faith.

(bb)     Statistical and Market Data. Nothing has come to the attention of the Company that has caused the Company to believe that the statistical and market-related data included in or incorporated by reference each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus is not based on or derived from sources that are reliable and accurate in all material respects.

(cc)     Sarbanes-Oxley Act. There is and has been no failure on the part of the Company or any of the Company’s directors or officers, in their capacities as such, to comply with any applicable provision of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended and the rules and regulations promulgated in connection therewith (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), including Section 402 thereof related to loans and Sections 302 and 906 related to certifications.

(dd)     Related Party Transactions. No relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company or any of its subsidiaries, on the one hand, and the directors, officers, stockholders, customers, suppliers or other affiliates of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, on the other, that is required by the Securities Act to be described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and that is not so described in such documents.

(ee)     Exchange Act Compliance. The documents incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, when they were filed with the Commission, conformed in all material respects to the requirements of the Exchange Act, and none of such documents contained any untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

(ff)     No Unlawful Contributions or Other Payments. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries, nor any director, officer or employee of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any agent, affiliate or other person associated with or acting on behalf of the Company or any of its subsidiaries has (i) used any corporate funds for any unlawful contribution, gift, entertainment or other unlawful expense relating to political activity; (ii) made, offered, promised or authorized any direct or indirect unlawful payment or benefit to

 

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any foreign or domestic government official or employee, including of any government-owned or controlled entity or of a public international organization, or any person acting in an official capacity for or on behalf of any of the foregoing, or any political party or party official or candidate for political office; (iii) violated or is in violation of any provision of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or any applicable law or regulation implementing the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, or committed an offence under the Bribery Act 2010 of the United Kingdom or any other applicable anti-bribery or anti-corruption law; or (iv) made, offered, agreed to, requested, promised or authorized any unlawful bribe, rebate, payoff, influence payment, kickback or other unlawful or improper payment or benefit. The Company and its subsidiaries have instituted, maintain and enforce and will continue to maintain and enforce, policies and procedures designed to promote and ensure compliance with all applicable anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws.

(gg)     Compliance with Money Laundering Laws. The operations of the Company and its subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements, including those of the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended, the applicable money laundering statutes of all jurisdictions where the Company or any of its subsidiaries conducts business, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines applicable to such entities issued, administered or enforced by any governmental agency (collectively, the “Anti-Money Laundering Laws”) and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any of its subsidiaries with respect to the Anti-Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened.

(hh)     Compliance with OFAC. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries, directors, officers, or employees, nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any agent, affiliate or other person associated with or acting on behalf of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is currently the subject or the target of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. government, (including, without limitation, the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Department of the Treasury (“OFAC”) or the U.S. Department of State and including, without limitation, the designation as a “specially designated national” or “blocked person”), the United Nations Security Council (“UNSC”), the European Union, Her Majesty’s Treasury (“HMT”) or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”), nor is the Company or any of its subsidiaries located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is the subject or target of Sanctions, including, without limitation, Crimea, Cuba, Iran, North Korea and Syria (each, a “Sanctioned Country”); and the Company will not directly or indirectly use the proceeds of the offering of the Shares hereunder, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiary, joint venture partner or other person or entity (i) to fund or facilitate any activities of or business with any person that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject or target of Sanctions, (ii) to fund or facilitate any activities of or business in any Sanctioned Country or (iii) in any other manner that will result in a violation by any person (including any person participating in the transaction, whether as underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise) of Sanctions. The Company and its subsidiaries have not knowingly engaged in and are not now knowingly engaged in any dealings or transactions with any person that at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject or the target of Sanctions or with any Sanctioned Country.

 

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(ii)     Company’s Accounting System. The Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, maintain systems of “internal control over financial reporting” (as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) of the Exchange Act) that comply with the requirements of the Exchange Act and have been designed by, or under the supervision of, their respective principal executive and principal financial officers, or persons performing similar functions, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with GAAP. The Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, maintain internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain asset accountability; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences; and (v) interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and is prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto. Based on the Company’s most recent evaluation of its internal controls over financial reporting pursuant to Rule 13a-15(c) of the Exchange Act, except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, to the Company’s knowledge, there are no material weaknesses in the Company’s internal controls. The Company’s auditors and the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors of the Company have been advised of: (x) all significant deficiencies and material weaknesses in the design or operation of internal controls over financial reporting which have adversely affected or are reasonably likely to adversely affect the Company’s ability to record, process, summarize and report financial information; and (y) any fraud, whether or not material, that involves management or other employees who have a significant role in the Company’s internal controls over financial reporting.

(jj)     Disclosure Controls. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company (on a consolidated basis with its subsidiaries) maintains an effective system of “disclosure controls and procedures” (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) of the Exchange Act) that complies with the requirements of the Exchange Act and that has been designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, including controls and procedures designed to ensure that such information is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. The Company (on a consolidated basis with its subsidiaries) has carried out evaluations of the effectiveness of its disclosure controls and procedures as required by Rule 13a-15 of the Exchange Act through September 30, 2020.

(kk)     Compliance with Environmental Laws. The Company and its subsidiaries (x) are in compliance with all, and have not violated any, applicable federal, state, local and foreign laws (including common law), rules, regulations, requirements, decisions, judgments, decrees, orders and other legally enforceable requirements relating to pollution or the protection of human health or safety, the environment, natural resources, hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants (collectively, “Environmental Laws”); (y) have received and are in compliance with all, and have not violated any, permits, licenses, certificates or other authorizations or approvals required of them under any Environmental Laws to conduct their respective businesses;

 

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and (z) have not received written notice of any actual or potential liability or obligation under or relating to, or any actual or potential violation of, any Environmental Laws, including for the investigation or remediation of any disposal or release of hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants, and have no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in any such notice, and (ii) there are no costs or liabilities associated with Environmental Laws of or relating to the Company or its subsidiaries, except in the case of each of (i) and (ii) above, for any such matter as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change; and (iii) except as described in the Prospectus, (x) there is no proceeding that is pending, or to the knowledge of the Company, that is contemplated, against the Company or any of its subsidiaries under any Environmental Laws in which a governmental entity is also a party, other than such proceeding regarding which it is reasonably believed no monetary sanctions of $100,000 or more will be imposed, (y) the Company and its subsidiaries are not aware of any facts or issues regarding compliance with Environmental Laws, or liabilities or other obligations under Environmental Laws or concerning hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants, that would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change, and (z) none of the Company or its subsidiaries currently anticipates material capital expenditures relating to any Environmental Laws.

(ll)     Compliance with ERISA. Except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change, (i) each employee benefit plan, within the meaning of Section 3(3) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”), for which the Company or any member of its “Controlled Group” (defined as any entity, whether or not incorporated, that is under common control with the Company within the meaning of Section 4001(a)(14) of ERISA or any entity that would be regarded as a single employer with the Company under Section 414(b),(c),(m) or (o) of the Code) would have any liability (each, a “Plan”) has been maintained in compliance with its terms and the requirements of any applicable statutes, orders, rules and regulations, including but not limited to ERISA and the Code; (ii) no prohibited transaction, within the meaning of Section 406 of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code, has occurred with respect to any Plan, excluding transactions effected pursuant to a statutory or administrative exemption; (iii) for each Plan that is subject to the funding rules of Section 412 of the Code or Section 302 of ERISA, no Plan has failed (whether or not waived), or is reasonably expected to fail, to satisfy the minimum funding standards (within the meaning of Section 302 of ERISA or Section 412 of the Code) applicable to such Plan; (iv) no Plan is, or is reasonably expected to be, in “at risk status” (within the meaning of Section 303(i) of ERISA) and no Plan that is a “multiemployer plan” within the meaning of Section 4001(a)(3) of ERISA is in “endangered status” or “critical status” (within the meaning of Sections 304 and 305 of ERISA) (v) the fair market value of the assets of each Plan exceeds the present value of all benefits accrued under such Plan (determined based on those assumptions used to fund such Plan); (vi) no “reportable event” (within the meaning of Section 4043(c) of ERISA and the regulations promulgated thereunder) has occurred or is reasonably expected to occur; (vii) each Plan that is intended to be qualified under Section 401(a) of the Code is so qualified, and nothing has occurred, whether by action or by failure to act, which would cause the loss of such qualification; (viii) neither the Company nor any member of the Controlled Group has incurred, nor reasonably expects to incur, any liability under Title IV of ERISA (other than contributions to the Plan or premiums to the Pension Benefit Guarantee Corporation, in the ordinary course and without default) in respect of a Plan (including a “multiemployer plan” within the meaning of Section

 

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4001(a)(3) of ERISA); and (ix) none of the following events has occurred or is reasonably likely to occur: (A) a material increase in the aggregate amount of contributions required to be made to all Plans by the Company or its Controlled Group affiliates in the current fiscal year of the Company and its Controlled Group affiliates compared to the amount of such contributions made in the Company’s and its Controlled Group affiliates’ most recently completed fiscal year; or (B) a material increase in the Company and its subsidiaries’ “accumulated post-retirement benefit obligations” (within the meaning of Accounting Standards Codification Topic 715-60) compared to the amount of such obligations in the Company and its subsidiaries’ most recently completed fiscal year.

(mm)     Intellectual Property. The Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, own, or have obtained valid and enforceable licensed rights to use, the inventions, patent applications, patents, trademarks, trade names, service names, copyrights, trade secrets and other intellectual property described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as being owned or licensed by them and which cover their respective businesses as currently conducted or as currently proposed to be conducted in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (collectively, “Intellectual Property”). To the Company’s knowledge: (i) there are no third parties who have rights to any solely owned or exclusively licensed Intellectual Property, except for customary reversionary rights of third-party licensors with respect to Intellectual Property that is disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as licensed to the Company or any of its subsidiaries, and the Company and each of its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, have taken all reasonable steps necessary to secure their respective interests in the Intellectual Property from their respective employees and contractors; (ii) there is no infringement by third parties of any Intellectual Property; (iii) neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is infringing the intellectual property rights of third parties; (iv) each of the Company and its subsidiaries is the sole owner of the Intellectual Property owned by it and has the valid right to use such Intellectual Property; and (v) no employee of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is in or has been in violation of any term of any employment contract, patent disclosure agreement, invention assignment agreement, non-competition agreement, non-solicitation agreement, nondisclosure agreement or any restrictive covenant to or with a former employer where the basis of such violation relates to such employee’s employment with the Company or such subsidiary. There is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others: (A) challenging the Company’s or any of its subsidiaries’ rights in or to any Intellectual Property, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim; (B) challenging the validity, enforceability or scope of any Intellectual Property, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim; or (C) asserting that the Company or any of its subsidiaries infringes or otherwise violates, or would, upon the commercialization of any product or service described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as under development, infringe, misappropriate or violate, any patent, trademark, trade name, service name, copyright, trade secret or other proprietary rights of others, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim. The Company and each of its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, have complied in all material respects with the terms of each agreement pursuant to which Intellectual Property has been licensed to the Company or such subsidiary, and all such agreements are in full force and effect. The product candidates described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as under development by the Company fall within the scope of the claims of one or more patents or patent applications owned by, or exclusively licensed to, the Company or its

 

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subsidiaries. All patents and patent applications owned by or exclusively licensed to the Company or its subsidiaries or under which the Company or any of its subsidiaries has rights have, to the knowledge of the Company, been duly and properly filed and each issued patent is being diligently maintained; to the knowledge of the Company, the parties prosecuting such applications have complied with their duty of candor and disclosure to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (the “USPTO”) in connection with such applications; except as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, to the Company’s knowledge, there is no patent or patent application that contains claims that dominate or may dominate (as such term is described in 35 U.S.C. §135 and 37 C.F.R. 41.100 to 41.208) with the issued or pending claims of any of the Intellectual Property of the Company or any of its subsidiaries; to the Company’s knowledge, there is no prior art material to any patent or patent application of the Intellectual Property of the Company or its subsidiaries that may render any U.S. patent held by the Company or its subsidiaries invalid or any U.S. patent application held by the Company or any of its subsidiaries unpatentable; and the Company is not aware of any facts required to be disclosed to the USPTO that were not disclosed to the USPTO and which would preclude the grant of a patent in connection with any such application or would reasonably be expected to form the basis of a finding of invalidity with respect to any patents that have been issued with respect to such applications.

(nn)     No Restrictions on Subsidiaries. Except for any restrictions under any applicable laws that are described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, no subsidiary of the Company is currently prohibited, directly or indirectly, under any agreement or other instrument to which it is a party or is subject, from paying any dividends to the Company, from making any other distribution on such subsidiary’s capital stock or similar ownership interest, from repaying to the Company any loans or advances to such subsidiary from the Company or from transferring any of such subsidiary’s properties or assets to the Company or any other subsidiary of the Company.

(oo)     Listing. The Company is subject to and in compliance in all material respects with the reporting requirements of Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) or Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act and is listed on the Nasdaq, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or that would reasonably be expected to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act or delisting the Common Stock from the Exchange, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or Nasdaq is contemplating terminating such registration or listing. All of the Shares that have been or may be sold under this Agreement and any Terms Agreement have been approved for listing on the Nasdaq, subject to official notice of issuance; the Company has taken all necessary actions to ensure that, upon and at all times after the Nasdaq shall have approved the Shares for listing, it will be in compliance with all applicable corporate governance requirements set forth in the Nasdaq’s listing rules that are then in effect.

(pp)     Brokers. Except for Cowen, there is no broker, finder or other party that is entitled to receive from the Company any brokerage or finder’s fee or other fee or commission as a result of any transactions contemplated by this Agreement or by any Terms Agreement.

(qq)     No Ratings. There are (and prior to each Settlement Date, will be) no debt securities, convertible securities or preferred stock issued or guaranteed by the Company or any of its subsidiaries that are rated by a “nationally recognized statistical rating organization”, as such term is defined in Section 3(a)(62) under the Exchange Act.

 

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(rr)     No Outstanding Loans or Other Indebtedness. Except as described in the Prospectus, there are no outstanding loans, advances (except normal advances for business expenses in the ordinary course of business) or guarantees or indebtedness by the Company to or for the benefit of any of the officers or directors of the Company or any of the members of any of them.

(ss)     No Reliance. The Company has not relied upon Cowen or legal counsel for Cowen for any legal, tax or accounting advice in connection with the offering and sale of the Shares.

(tt)     [Intentionally omitted.]

(uu)     Compliance with Laws. The Company has not been advised, and has no reason to believe, that it and each of its subsidiaries are not conducting business in compliance with all applicable laws, rules and regulations of the jurisdictions in which it is conducting business, except where failure to be so in compliance would not result in a Material Adverse Change.

(vv)     Privacy Laws. Except as would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change, (i) the Company and its subsidiaries’ information technology assets and equipment, computers, systems, networks, hardware, software, websites, applications, and databases (collectively, “IT Systems”) are adequate for, and operate and perform in all material respects as required in connection with, the operation of the business of the Company and its subsidiaries as currently conducted as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, and (ii) to the Company’s knowledge, such IT Systems are not infected by viruses, bugs, malware, disabling code or other harmful code. The Company and its subsidiaries taken commercially reasonable actions, consistent with current industry standards and their obligations to third parties, to implement and maintain commercially reasonable controls, policies, procedures, and safeguards to maintain and protect their material trade secrets and confidential information and the integrity and security of all IT Systems and data (including all personal, personally identifiable, sensitive, confidential or regulated data (“Personal Data”)) used in connection with their businesses, and, to the knowledge of the Company, there have been no breaches, violations, outages or unauthorized uses of or accesses to same, except for those that have been remedied without material cost or liability or the duty to notify any other person, nor any incidents under internal review or investigations relating to the same. The Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, are presently in material compliance with all applicable laws or statutes and all judgments, orders, rules and regulations of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, internal policies and contractual obligations relating to the privacy and security of IT Systems and Personal Data and to the protection of such IT Systems and Personal Data from unauthorized use, access, misappropriation or modification; and the Company and its subsidiaries have implemented backup and disaster recovery technology reasonably consistent with industry standards and practices, except to the extent that any inconsistency would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change.

(ww)     Export and Import Laws. Each of the Company and the Subsidiaries, and, to the Company’s knowledge, each of their affiliates and any director, officer, agent or employee of, or other person associated with or acting on behalf of, the Company has acted at all times in

 

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compliance with applicable Export and Import Laws (as defined below) and there are no claims, complaints, charges, investigations or proceedings pending or expected or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened between the Company or any of the Subsidiaries and any Governmental Authority under any Export or Import Laws. The term “Export and Import Laws” means the Arms Export Control Act, the International Traffic in Arms Regulations, the Export Administration Act of 1979, as amended, the Export Administration Regulations, and all other laws and regulations of the United States government regulating the provision of services to non-U.S. parties or the export and import of articles or information from and to the United States of America, and all similar laws and regulations of any foreign government regulating the provision of services to parties not of the foreign country or the export and import of articles and information from and to the foreign country to parties not of the foreign country.

(xx)     Title to Real and Personal Property. The Company and its subsidiaries have good and marketable title in fee simple (in the case of real property) to, or have valid rights to lease or otherwise use, all items of real and personal property that are material to the respective businesses of the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole (other than with respect to Intellectual Property, title to which is addressed exclusively in Section 3(nn)), in each case free and clear of all liens, encumbrances, claims and defects and imperfections of title except those that (i) do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and its subsidiaries or (ii) would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to result in a Material Adverse Change.

(yy)     No Labor Disputes. No material labor disturbance by or dispute with employees of the Company or any of its subsidiaries exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is contemplated or threatened.

(zz)     Regulatory Compliance. The Company (on a consolidated basis with its subsidiaries): (i) has operated and currently operates its business in compliance in all material respects with applicable provisions of the Health Care Laws (as defined below) of the Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”), the Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) and any comparable foreign or other regulatory authority to which they are subject (collectively, the “Applicable Regulatory Authorities”) applicable to the ownership, testing, development, manufacture, packaging, processing, use, distribution, storage, import, export or disposal of any of the Company’s or its subsidiaries’ product candidates or any product manufactured or distributed by the Company and its subsidiaries; (ii) has not received any FDA Form 483, written notice of adverse finding, warning letter, untitled letter or other correspondence or written notice from any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority alleging or asserting non-compliance with (A) any Health Care Laws or (B) or any licenses, certificates, approvals, clearances, exemptions, authorizations, permits and supplements or amendments thereto required by any such Health Care Laws (“Regulatory Authorizations”); (iii) except to the extent that any non-compliance would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change, possesses all Regulatory Authorizations required to conduct its business as currently conducted and such Regulatory Authorizations are valid and in full force and effect and neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries are in violation of any term of any such Regulatory Authorizations; (iv) has not received written notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from the Applicable Regulatory Authorities or any other third party alleging that any product operation or activity is in

 

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material violation of any Health Care Laws or Regulatory Authorizations and has no knowledge that the Applicable Regulatory Authorities or any other third party is threatening any such claim, litigation, arbitration, action, suit, investigation or proceeding; (v) has not received written notice that any of the Applicable Regulatory Authorities has taken, is taking or intends to take action to limit, suspend, modify or revoke any material Regulatory Authorizations and has no knowledge that any of the Applicable Regulatory Authorities is considering such action; (vi) has filed, obtained, maintained or submitted all material reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments as required by any Health Care Laws or Regulatory Authorizations and, to the knowledge of the Company, that all such reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were materially complete and correct on the date filed (or were materially corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission); (vii) is not a party to or have any ongoing reporting obligations pursuant to any corporate integrity agreements, deferred prosecution agreements, monitoring agreements, consent decrees, settlement orders, plans of correction or similar agreements with or imposed by any Applicable Regulatory Authority; and (viii) along with its employees, officers, directors and, to the knowledge of the Company, agents have not, been excluded, suspended or debarred from participation in any government health care program or human clinical research or, to the knowledge of the Company, is subject to a governmental inquiry, investigation, proceeding, or other similar action that could reasonably be expected to result in debarment, suspension, or exclusion. The term “Health Care Laws” means Title XVIII of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1395-1395hhh (the Medicare statute); Title XIX of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1396-1396v (the Medicaid statute); the Federal Anti-Kickback Statute, 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(b); the civil False Claims Act, 31 U.S.C. §§ 3729 et seq.; the criminal False Claims Act, 42 U.S.C. 1320a-7b(a); any criminal laws relating to health care fraud and abuse, including but not limited to 18 U.S.C. Sections 286, 287, 1001, 1035, 1347 and 1349, and the health care fraud criminal provisions under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1320d et seq., (“HIPAA”); the Civil Monetary Penalties Law, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1320a-7a and 1320a-7b; the Physician Payments Sunshine Act, 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7h; the Exclusion Laws, 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7; HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 17921 et seq.; the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 21 U.S.C. §§ 301 et seq.; the Public Health Service Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 201 et seq.; each as amended, and the regulations promulgated pursuant to such laws; and any similar foreign, federal, state and local laws and regulations.

(aaa)     Manufacturing and Suppliers. To the Company’s knowledge, the manufacturing facilities and operations of its suppliers and its subsidiaries’ suppliers have been operated and are currently operated in compliance in all material respects with all applicable statutes, rules, regulations and policies of the Applicable Regulatory Authorities, including, without limitation, the Health Care Laws.

(bbb)     Studies, Tests and Trials. Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, none of the Company’s product candidates have received marketing approval from any Applicable Regulatory Authority. All clinical and pre-clinical studies and trials conducted by or on behalf of or sponsored by the Company or its subsidiaries, with respect to the Company’s product candidates, including any such studies and trials that are described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, or the results of which are referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as applicable (collectively, “Company Trials”), were, and if still pending are,

 

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being conducted in all material respects in accordance with the Health Care Laws, including, without limitation, current Good Clinical Practices and Good Laboratory Practices, and with standard medical and scientific research procedures and any applicable rules, regulations and policies of the jurisdiction in which such trials and studies are being conducted; the descriptions in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus of the results of any Company Trials are accurate and complete descriptions in all material respects and fairly present the data derived therefrom; the Company has no knowledge of any other studies or trials not described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the results of which are inconsistent with or reasonably call into question the results described or referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; the Company and each of its subsidiaries have operated at all times and are currently in compliance in all material respects with all applicable Health Care Laws of the Applicable Regulatory Authorities; neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received, and neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries have knowledge that any of their respective collaboration partners have received, any written notices, correspondence or other communications from the Applicable Regulatory Authorities or any other governmental entity requiring or threatening the termination, material modification or suspension of Company Trials, other than ordinary course communications with respect to modifications in connection with the design and implementation of such studies or trials, and, to the Company’s knowledge, there are no reasonable grounds for the same. No investigational new drug application or comparable submission filed by or on behalf of the Company or any of its subsidiaries has been terminated or suspended by the FDA or any other Applicable Regulatory Authority. To the Company’s knowledge the Company has obtained (or caused to be obtained) informed consent by or on behalf of each human subject who participated in a Company Trial.

Any certificate signed by an officer of the Company and delivered to Cowen or to counsel for Cowen pursuant to or in connection with this Agreement or any Terms Agreement shall be deemed to be a representation and warranty by the Company to Cowen as to the matters set forth therein.

The Company acknowledges that Cowen and, for purposes of the opinions to be delivered pursuant to Section 7 hereof, counsel to the Company and counsel to Cowen, will rely upon the accuracy and truthfulness of the foregoing representations and hereby consents to such reliance.

7.     Covenants of the Company. The Company covenants and agrees with Cowen that:

(a)     Registration Statement Amendments. After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which a Prospectus relating to any Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), (i) the Company will notify Cowen promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than documents incorporated by reference, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus or for additional information, (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon Cowen’s reasonable request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that, in Cowen’s reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable in connection with the distribution of the Shares by Cowen (provided, however, that (A) the failure of Cowen to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect

 

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Cowen’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, (B) the Company has no obligation to provide Cowen any advance copy of such filing or to provide Cowen an opportunity to object to such filing if the filing does not name Cowen and does not relate to the transactions herein, and (C) the only remedy that Cowen shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to provide Cowen with such copy or the filing of such amendment or supplement despite Cowen’s objection shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement or any Terms Agreement); (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, relating to the Shares or a security convertible into the Shares unless a copy thereof has been submitted to Cowen within a reasonable period of time before the filing and Cowen has not reasonably objected thereto (provided, however, that the failure of Cowen to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect Cowen’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement or any Terms Agreement) and the Company will furnish to Cowen at the time of filing thereof a copy of any document that upon filing is deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus, except for those documents available via EDGAR; (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act, and (v) during the term of this Agreement, the Company will notify Cowen if at any time the Registration Statement shall no longer be effective as a result of the passage of time pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act or otherwise. Prior to the initial sale of any Shares, the Company shall file a final Prospectus Supplement pursuant to Rule 424(b) relating to the Shares.

(b)     Notice of Commission Stop Orders. The Company will advise Cowen, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction, or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; and it will promptly use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued.

(c)     Delivery of Prospectus; Subsequent Changes. During any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act with respect to a pending sale of the Shares (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), the Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and to file on or before their respective due dates (taking into account any extensions available under the Exchange Act) all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act. If during such period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will as promptly as practicable notify Cowen to suspend the offering of Shares during such period and the Company will promptly amend or

 

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supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance; provided, that, the Company may delay the filing of any amendment or supplement, if in the judgment of the Company, it is in the best interest of the Company, during which time of delay of Cowen shall be under no obligation to make any sales of Shares hereunder.

(d)     Listing of Shares. During any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act with respect to a pending sale of the Shares (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), the Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Shares to be listed on Nasdaq and to qualify the Shares for sale under the securities laws of such jurisdictions as Cowen reasonably designates and to continue such qualifications in effect so long as required for the distribution of the Shares; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required in connection therewith to qualify as a foreign corporation or dealer in securities or file a general consent to service of process in any jurisdiction.

(e)     Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company will furnish to Cowen and its counsel (at the expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all documents incorporated by reference therein) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that are filed with the Commission during any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Shares is required to be delivered under the Securities Act (including all documents filed with the Commission during such period that are deemed to be incorporated by reference therein), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable and in such quantities as Cowen may from time to time reasonably request and, at Cowen’s request, will also furnish copies of the Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales of the Shares may be made; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to Cowen to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.

(f)     Earnings Statement. The Company will make generally available to its security holders as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter, an earnings statement covering a 12-month period that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) and Rule 158 of the Securities Act.

(g)     Expenses. The Company, whether or not the transactions contemplated hereunder are consummated or this Agreement is terminated, in accordance with the provisions of Section 11 hereunder, will pay the following expenses all incident to the performance of its obligations hereunder, including, but not limited to, expenses relating to (i) the preparation, printing and filing of the Registration Statement and each amendment and supplement thereto, of each Prospectus and of each amendment and supplement thereto, (ii) the preparation, issuance and delivery of the Shares, (iii) the qualification of the Shares under securities laws in accordance with the provisions of Section 7(d) of this Agreement, including filing fees (provided, however, that any fees or disbursements of counsel for Cowen in connection therewith shall be paid by Cowen except as set forth in (vii) below), (iv) the printing and delivery to Cowen of copies of the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto, and of this Agreement and any Terms Agreement, (v) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing or qualification of the Shares for trading on Nasdaq, (vi) the filing fees and expenses, if any, of the Commission, (vii) the filing fees and associated legal expenses of Cowen’s outside counsel for filings with the FINRA Corporate Financing Department, such legal expense reimbursement not to exceed $10,000 and, (viii) the reasonable fees and disbursements of Cowen’s counsel in an amount not to exceed $50,000.

 

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(h)     Use of Proceeds. The Company will use the Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”

(i)     Notice of Other Sales. During the pendency of any Placement Notice given hereunder, , the Company shall provide Cowen notice as promptly as reasonably possible before it offers to sell, contracts to sell, sells, grants any option to sell or otherwise disposes of any shares of Common Stock (other than Shares offered pursuant to the provisions of this Agreement or any Terms Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire Common Stock; provided, that such notice shall not be required in connection with the (i) offer, issuance, grant or sale of Common Stock, options to purchase shares of Common Stock or Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of options or other equity awards pursuant to any equity incentive plan, stock option, stock bonus or other stock plan or arrangement described in the Prospectus, (ii) the offer or issuance of securities in connection with an acquisition, merger or sale or purchase of assets, (iii) the issuance or sale of Common Stock pursuant to any dividend reinvestment plan that the Company may adopt from time to time provided the implementation of such is disclosed to Cowen in advance, (iv) any shares of common stock issuable upon the exchange, conversion or redemption of securities or the exercise of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding or disclosed in filings by the Company available on EDGAR or otherwise in writing to Cowen prior to the date of the applicable Placement Notice. (v) Common Stock or securities convertible into or exercisable for Common Stock, offered and sold in a privately negotiated transaction to vendors, customers, strategic partners or potential strategic partners and otherwise conducted in a manner so as not to be integrated with the offering of the shares of Common Stock hereby.1 Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, subject to the Company’s compliance with the notice provisions set forth in this Section 7(i), nothing herein shall be construed to restrict the Company from entering into and/or consummating a committed underwritten equity offering or other similar offering of its registered securities, or otherwise prohibit the issuance of its equity securities in a private placement transaction, or require that the Company provide notice of, or obtain prior written consent, to do any of the foregoing.

(j)     Change of Circumstances. The Company will, at any time during the pendency of a Placement Notice or while a Terms Agreement is in effect, advise Cowen promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge thereof, of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document provided to Cowen pursuant to this Agreement or any Terms Agreement.

(k)     Due Diligence Cooperation. The Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by Cowen or its agents in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby or by any Terms Agreement, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as Cowen may reasonably request.

 

1 

To confirm no further carve outs needed.

 

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(l)     Required Filings Relating to Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that on such dates as the Securities Act shall require, the Company will (i) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act (each and every filing under Rule 424(b), a “Filing Date”), and (ii) deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market. The Company shall disclose in its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and in its annual report on Form 10-K, the number of the Shares sold through or to Cowen under this Agreement and any Terms Agreement, and the gross proceeds and Net Proceeds to the Company from the sale of the Shares and the compensation paid by the Company with respect to sales of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement during the relevant quarter or, in the case of an Annual Report on Form 10-K, during the fiscal year covered by such Annual Report and the fourth quarter of such fiscal year.

(m)     Bring-Down Dates; Certificate. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and each time (i) amends or supplements the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Shares (other than a prospectus supplement filed in accordance with Section 7(l) of this Agreement) by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker, or supplement but not by means of incorporation of document(s) by reference to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Shares; (ii) the Company files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act; (iii) the Company files its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or (iv) the Company files a report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than an earnings release) under the Exchange Act (each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) shall be a Bring-Down Date); the Company shall furnish Cowen with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) within three (3) Trading Days of any Bring-Down Date if requested by Cowen. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(m) shall be waived for any Bring-Down Date occurring at a time at which no Agency Transaction is pending, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers a Placement Notice hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Bring-Down Date) and the next occurring Bring-Down Date. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Shares in an Agency Transaction following a Bring-Down Date when the Company relied on such waiver and did not provide Cowen with a certificate under this Section 7(m), then before the Company delivers the Placement Notice or Cowen sells any Shares pursuant to such Agency Transaction, the Company shall provide Cowen with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m), dated the date of the Placement Notice. With respect to any Principal Transaction pursuant to a Terms Agreement, the certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) shall be delivered at the Principal Settlement Date.

(n)     Legal Opinion. On or prior to the First Delivery Date, the Company shall cause to be furnished to Cowen a written opinion of Cooley LLP (“Company Counsel”) and a “negative assurances letter” of Company Counsel, or other counsel satisfactory to Cowen, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel. Within three (3) Trading Days of each Bring-Down Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause to be furnished to Cowen a negative assurances letter of Company Counsel, or other counsel reasonably satisfactory to Cowen, in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel, dated the date that the opinion is required to be delivered ; provided, however, that in lieu of such negative assurances letters for subsequent Bring-Down Dates, counsel may furnish Cowen with a

 

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letter (a “Reliance Letter”) to the effect that Cowen may rely on a prior negative assurances letter delivered under this Section 7(n) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior opinion shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented at such Bring-Down Date). With respect to any Principal Transaction pursuant to a Terms Agreement, the Company shall cause to be furnished to Cowen on the Principal Settlement Date a written opinion of Company Counsel, or other counsel satisfactory to Cowen, in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel, dated the Principal Settlement Date, substantially similar to the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(n)(i).

(o)     Comfort Letter. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and within three (3) Trading Days of each Bring-Down Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause its independent accountants to furnish Cowen letters (the Comfort Letters), dated the date the Comfort Letter is delivered, in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen, (i) confirming that they are an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the PCAOB, (ii) stating, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to Cowen in connection with registered public offerings (the first such letter, the Initial Comfort Letter) and (iii) updating the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter. With respect to any Principal Transaction pursuant to a Terms Agreement, the Company shall cause its independent accountants to furnish Cowen, in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen, Comfort Letters at the Time of Sale, dated the date of such Time of Sale, and on the Principal Settlement Date, dated the Principal Settlement Date.

(p)     [Chief Financial Officer’s Certificate. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and within three (3) Trading Days of each Bring-Down Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(p) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall have delivered to Cowen a certificate executed by the Chief Financial Officer of the Company (“CFO Certificate”), dated as of such date, in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen. With respect to any Principal Transaction pursuant to a Terms Agreement, the Company shall cause to be furnished to Cowen on the Principal Settlement Date a CFO Certificate, dated the Principal Settlement Date, in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel.]2

(q)     Market Activities. The Company will not, directly or indirectly, (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or would reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Shares or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase the Common Stock to be issued and sold pursuant to this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Shares other than Cowen; provided, however, that the Company may bid for and purchase shares of its common stock in accordance with Rule 10b-18 under the Exchange Act.

 

2 

Note to Draft: To be applicable if auditors are unable to provide customary comfort as to any material financial or similar disclosure.

 

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(r)     Insurance. The Company and its subsidiaries shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as is reasonable and customary for the business for which it is engaged.

(s)     Compliance with Laws. The Company and each of its subsidiaries shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, all material environmental permits, licenses and other authorizations required by federal, state and local law in order to conduct their businesses as described in the Prospectus, and the Company and each of its subsidiaries shall conduct their businesses, or cause their businesses to be conducted, in substantial compliance with such permits, licenses and authorizations and with applicable environmental laws, except where the failure to maintain or be in compliance with such permits, licenses and authorizations would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change.

(t)     Investment Company Act. The Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure that neither it nor its subsidiaries will be or become, at any time prior to the termination of this Agreement, an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act, assuming no change in the Commission’s current interpretation as to entities that are not considered an investment company.

(u)     Securities Act and Exchange Act. The Company will use its reasonable best efforts to comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act and the Exchange Act as from time to time in force, so far as necessary to permit the continuance of sales of, or dealings in, the Shares as contemplated by the provisions hereof and the Prospectus.

(v)     No Offer to Sell. Other than a Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, neither Cowen nor the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than Cowen in its capacity as such) will make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Common Stock hereunder.

(w)     Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company and its subsidiaries will use their reasonable best efforts to comply with all effective applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

(w)     Affirmation. Each Placement Notice delivered by the Company to Cowen and each execution and delivery by the Company of a Terms Agreement shall be deemed to be (i) an affirmation that the representations, warranties and agreements of the Company herein contained and contained in any certificate delivered to Cowen pursuant hereto are true and correct at the time of delivery of such Placement Notice or the date of such Terms Agreement, as the case may be, and (ii) an undertaking that such representations, warranties and agreements will be true and correct on any applicable Time of Sale and Settlement Date, as though made at and as of each such time (it being understood that such representations, warranties and agreements shall relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented to the time of such Placement Notice acceptance or Terms Agreement, as the case may be).

(x)     Renewal. If immediately prior to the third anniversary (the “Renewal Deadline”) of the initial effective date of the Registration Statement, the aggregate gross sales price of Shares sold by the Company is less than the Maximum Amount and this Agreement has not expired or been terminated, the Company will, prior to the Renewal Deadline, file, if it has not already done so and is eligible to do so, a new shelf registration statement relating to the Shares, in a form satisfactory to Cowen, and, if not automatically effective, will use its best efforts to cause such registration statement to be declared effective within 60 days after the Renewal Deadline. The Company will take all other action necessary or appropriate to permit the issuance and sale of the Shares to continue as contemplated in the expired registration statement relating to the Shares. References herein to the Registration Statement shall include such new shelf registration statement.

 

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8.     Conditions to Cowen’s Obligations. The obligations of Cowen hereunder with respect to a Placement Notice or pursuant to any Terms Agreement will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties made by the Company herein, to the due performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder and thereunder, to the completion by Cowen of a due diligence review satisfactory to Cowen in its reasonable judgment, and to the continuing satisfaction (or waiver by Cowen in its sole discretion) of the following additional conditions:

(a)     Registration Statement Effective. The Registration Statement shall be effective and shall be available for the sale of all Shares contemplated to be issued by pursuant to Placement Notice or any Terms Agreement.

(b)     No Material Notices. None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing: (i) receipt by the Company or any of its subsidiaries of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; or (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any material statement made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any material document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference untrue in any material respect or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, related Prospectus or such documents so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, that in the case of the Prospectus, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

(c)     No Misstatement or Material Omission. Cowen shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in Cowen’s reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in Cowen’s reasonable opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

(d)     Material Changes. Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any material adverse change, on a consolidated basis, in the authorized capital stock of the Company or any Material Adverse Change or any development that would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change, or any downgrading in or withdrawal of the rating assigned to any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities) by any rating organization or a public announcement by any rating organization that it has under surveillance or review its rating of any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), the effect of which, in the case of

 

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any such action by a rating organization described above, in the reasonable judgment of Cowen (without relieving the Company of any obligation or liability it may otherwise have), is so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering of the Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.

(e)     Company Counsel Legal Opinion. Cowen shall have received the opinions of Company Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(n) on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n).

(f)     Cowen Counsel Legal Opinion. Cowen shall have received from Latham & Watkins LLP, counsel for Cowen, such opinion or opinions, on or before the date on which the delivery of the Company Counsel legal opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n), with respect to such matters as Cowen may reasonably require, and the Company shall have furnished to such counsel such documents as they request for enabling them to pass upon such matters.

(g)     Comfort Letter. Cowen shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(o) on or before the date on which such delivery of such Comfort Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(o).

(h)     Representation Certificate. Cowen shall have received the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(m) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(m).

(i)     Secretary’s Certificate. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and at each Principal Settlement Date, Cowen shall have received a certificate, signed on behalf of the Company by its corporate secretary, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel.

(j)     [CFO Certificate. Cowen shall have received the CFO Certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(p) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(p).]3

(k)     No Suspension. Trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended on Nasdaq.

(l)     Other Materials. On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m), the Company shall have furnished to Cowen such appropriate further information, certificates and documents as Cowen may have reasonably requested. All such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents shall have been in compliance with the provisions hereof. The Company will furnish Cowen with such conformed copies of such opinions (other than any opinion contemplated by Section 8(f)), certificates, letters and other documents as Cowen shall have reasonably requested.

(m)     Securities Act Filings Made. All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424 under the Securities Act to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder or prior to any Principal Settlement Date shall have been made within the applicable time period

 

3 

Note to Draft: If applicable.

 

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prescribed for such filing by Rule 424. The Company shall file a prospectus supplement or a supplement to a prospectus supplement in connection with any Principal Transaction pursuant to a Terms Agreement within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424.

(n)     Approval for Listing. To the extent required by the rules of Nasdaq, the Shares shall either have been (i) approved for listing on Nasdaq, subject only to notice of issuance, or (ii) the Company shall have filed an application for listing of the Shares on Nasdaq at, or prior to, the issuance of any Placement Notice.

(o)     No Termination Event. There shall not have occurred any event that would permit Cowen to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 11(a).

9.     Indemnification and Contribution.

(a)     Company Indemnification. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless Cowen, the directors, officers, partners, employees and agents of Cowen and each person, if any, who (i) controls Cowen within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act, or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with Cowen from and against any and all losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including, but not limited to, any and all reasonable and documented investigative, legal and other expenses incurred in connection with, and any and all amounts paid in settlement (in accordance with Section 9(c)) of, any action, suit or proceeding between any of the indemnified parties and any indemnifying parties or between any indemnified party and any third party, or otherwise, or any claim asserted), within 30 days of the written receipt of the documented expenses by the indemnifying party, to which Cowen, or any such person, may become subject under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or other federal or state statutory law or regulation, at common law or otherwise, insofar as such losses, claims, liabilities, expenses or damages arise out of or are based, directly or indirectly, on (x) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or in any free writing prospectus , or (y) the omission or alleged omission to state in any such document a material fact required to be stated in it or necessary to make the statements in it not misleading ; provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to the extent that such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage arises from the sale of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement or any Terms Agreement and is caused directly or indirectly by an untrue statement or omission made in reliance upon and in conformity with solely Agent’s Information. As used herein, “Agent’s Information” means, solely, the following information in the Prospectus: the [            ] paragraphs under the caption “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus. This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability that the Company might otherwise have.

(b)     Cowen Indemnification. Cowen agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and each officer of the Company that signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Company against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 9(a), as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto) or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent’s Information.

 

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(c)     Procedure. Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 9 will, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 9, notify each such indemnifying party in writing of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the omission so to notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 9 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provision of this Section 9 unless, and only to the extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party. If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any legal or other expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable and documented costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense. The indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the reasonable and documented fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying party (in which case the indemnifying party will not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel to assume the defense of such action within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action, in each of which cases the reasonable and documented fees, disbursements and other charges of counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties. It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate firm admitted to practice in such jurisdiction at any one time for all such indemnified party or parties. All such fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party within 30 days of the written receipt of the documented expenses by the indemnifying party. An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 9 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement, compromise or consent includes an unconditional release of each indemnified party from all liability arising or that may arise out of such claim, action or proceeding.

 

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(d)     Contribution. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 9 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable from the Company or Cowen, the Company and Cowen will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement of, any action, suit or proceeding or any claim asserted, but after deducting any contribution received by the Company from persons other than Cowen, such as persons who control the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act, officers of the Company who signed the Registration Statement and directors of the Company, who also may be liable for contribution) to which the Company and Cowen may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and Cowen on the other. The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and Cowen on the other hand shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total Net Proceeds from the sale of the Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by Cowen from the sale of Shares on behalf of the Company. If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and Cowen, on the other, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations with respect to such offering. Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or Cowen, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission. The Company and Cowen agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 9(d) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein. The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense, or damage, or action in respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 9(d) shall be deemed to include, for the purpose of this Section 9(d), any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action or claim to the extent consistent with Section 9(c) hereof. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 9(d), Cowen shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement and no person found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 9(d), any person who controls a party to this Agreement or any Terms Agreement within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any officers, directors, partners, employees or agents of Cowen, will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each director of the Company and each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement will have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the provisions hereof. Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 9(d), will notify any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 9(d) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced

 

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the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought. Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 9(c) hereof, no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 9(c) hereof.

10.     Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery. The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in Section 9 of this Agreement and all representations and warranties of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto shall survive, as of their respective dates, regardless of (i) any investigation made by or on behalf of Cowen, any controlling persons, or the Company (or any of their respective officers, directors or controlling persons), (ii) delivery and acceptance of the Shares and payment therefor or (iii) any termination of this Agreement.

11.     Termination.

(a)     Cowen shall have the right by giving written notice as hereinafter specified at any time to terminate this Agreement if (i) any Material Adverse Change, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change, has occurred that, in the reasonable judgment of Cowen, may materially impair the ability of Cowen to sell the Shares hereunder, (ii) the Company shall have failed, refused or been unable to perform any agreement on its part to be performed hereunder; or (iii) any other condition of Cowen’s obligations hereunder is not fulfilled, or (iv), any suspension or limitation of trading in the Shares or in securities generally on Nasdaq shall have occurred. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g) (Expenses), Section 9 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 10 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 16 (Applicable Law; Consent to Jurisdiction) and Section 17 (Waiver of Jury Trial) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. If Cowen elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 11(a), Cowen shall provide the required written notice as specified in Section 12 (Notices).

(b) In the case of any purchase by Cowen pursuant to a Terms Agreement, the obligations of Cowen pursuant to such Terms Agreement shall be subject to termination by Cowen at any time prior to or at the Principal Settlement Date if (A) since the time of execution of the Terms Agreement or the respective dates as of which information is given in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, (i) there has been any Material Adverse Change or material change in the senior management of the Company, whether or not arising in the ordinary course of business; or (ii) there has occurred any outbreak or escalation of hostilities or other national or international calamity or crisis or change in economic, political or other conditions, the effect of which on the United States or international financial markets is such as to make it, in Cowen’s judgment, impracticable to market the Shares or enforce contracts for the sale of the Shares; or (iii) if trading in any securities of the Company has been suspended by the Commission or by the Nasdaq, or if trading generally on the Nasdaq over-the-counter market or the New York Stock Exchange has been suspended (including an automatic halt in trading pursuant to market-decline triggers, other than those in which solely program trading is temporarily halted), or limitations on prices for trading (other than limitations on hours or numbers of days of trading) have been fixed, or maximum ranges for prices for securities have been required, by such exchange or FINRA or the over-the-counter market or by order of the Commission or any other governmental authority; or

 

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(iv) if there has been any downgrade in the rating of any of the Company’s debt securities or preferred stock by any “nationally recognized statistical rating organization” (as defined under Section 3(a)(62) of the Exchange Act); or (v) any federal, state, local or foreign statute, regulation, rule or order of any court or other governmental authority has been enacted, published, decreed or otherwise promulgated which, in the opinion of Cowen, would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change; or (vi) any action has been taken by any federal, state, local or foreign government or agency in respect of its monetary or fiscal affairs which, in the opinion of Cowen, would reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the securities markets in the United States. If Cowen elects to terminate its obligations pursuant to this Section 11(b), the Company shall be notified promptly in writing.

(c)     The Company shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days’ notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(d)     Cowen shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days’ notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(e)     Unless earlier terminated pursuant to this Section 11, this Agreement shall automatically terminate upon the issuance and sale of all of the Shares through Cowen on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein; provided that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(f)     This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 11(a), (b), (c), (d), or (e) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 shall remain in full force and effect.

(g)     Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by Cowen or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Shares, such Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement. Upon termination of this Agreement, the Company shall not have liability to Cowen for any discount, commission or other compensation with respect to any Shares not otherwise sold by Cowen under this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, except with respect to reimbursement of expenses pursuant to Section 7(g).

 

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(h)    Subject to the additional limitations set forth in Section 7 of this Agreement, in the event of termination of this Agreement prior to the sale of any the Shares, Cowen shall be entitled only to reimbursement of its out of pocket expenses actually incurred.

12.     Notices. All notices or other communications required or permitted to be given by any party to any other party pursuant to the terms of this Agreement or any Terms Agreement shall be in writing, unless otherwise specified in this Agreement, and if sent to Cowen, shall be delivered to Cowen at Cowen and Company, LLC, 599 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10022, Attention: General Counsel, email: Bradley.friedman@cowen.com; or if sent to the Company, shall be delivered to Oyster Point Pharma, Inc. 202 Carnegie Center, Suite 109, Princeton, New Jersey, 08540, Attention: President and Chief Executive Officer, email: jnau@oysterpointrx.com with a copy to Cooley LLP, Attention: Divakar Gupta, Esq., email: dgupta@cooley.com. Each party to this Agreement may change such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose. Each such notice or other communication shall be deemed given (i) when delivered personally or by verifiable facsimile transmission (with an original to follow) on or before 4:30 p.m., New York City time, on a Business Day (as defined below), or, if such day is not a Business Day on the next succeeding Business Day, (ii) on the next Business Day after timely delivery to a nationally-recognized overnight courier and (iii) on the Business Day actually received if deposited in the U.S. mail (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid). For purposes of this Agreement, “Business Day” shall mean any day on which the Nasdaq and commercial banks in the City of New York are open for business.

13.     Successors and Assigns. This Agreement and any Terms Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Company and Cowen and their respective successors and the affiliates, controlling persons, officers and directors referred to in Section 9 hereof. References to any of the parties contained in this Agreement or any Terms Agreement shall be deemed to include the successors and permitted assigns of such party. Nothing in this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, express or implied, is intended to confer upon any party other than the parties hereto or their respective successors and permitted assigns any rights, remedies, obligations or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement or any such Terms Agreement, except as expressly provided in this Agreement or such Terms Agreement. Neither party may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement or any Terms Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party; provided, however, that Cowen may assign its rights and obligations hereunder or under any Terms Agreement to an affiliate of Cowen without obtaining the Company’s consent.

14.     Adjustments for Share Splits. The parties acknowledge and agree that all share-related numbers contained in this Agreement or any Terms Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any share split, share dividend or similar event effected with respect to the Common Stock.

15.     Entire Agreement; Amendment; Severability. This Agreement (including all schedules and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto), together with any Terms Agreement, constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter hereof. Neither this Agreement, nor any Terms Agreement, nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and Cowen. In the event that any one or more of the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof

 

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in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement and any Terms Agreement.

16.     Applicable Law; Consent to Jurisdiction. This Agreement and any Terms Agreement shall be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York without regard to the principles of conflicts of laws. Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, borough of Manhattan, for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection with any transaction contemplated hereby or by any Terms Agreement, and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any suit, action or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such suit, action or proceeding is brought in an inconvenient forum or that the venue of such suit, action or proceeding is improper. Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy thereof (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested) to such party at the address in effect for notices to it under this Agreement and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient service of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any manner permitted by law.

17.     Waiver of Jury Trial. The Company and Cowen each hereby irrevocably waives any right it may have to a trial by jury in respect of any claim based upon or arising out of this Agreement, any Terms Agreement or any transaction contemplated hereby or thereby.

18.     Absence of Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that:

(a)     Cowen has been retained solely to act as an arm’s length contractual counterparty to the Company in connection with the sale of the Shares contemplated hereby and any Terms Agreement and that no fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship between the Company and Cowen has been created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, irrespective of whether Cowen has advised or is advising the Company on other matters;

(b)     the Company is capable of evaluating and understanding and understands and accepts the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement or any Terms Agreement;

(c)     the Company has been advised that Cowen and its affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and that Cowen has no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship; and

(d)     the Company waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against Cowen, for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty in connection with the sale of Shares under this Agreement or any Terms Agreement and agrees that Cowen shall

 

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have no liability (whether direct or indirect) to the Company in respect of such a fiduciary claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on behalf of or in right of the Company, including stockholders, partners, employees or creditors of the Company.

19.     Counterparts. This Agreement and any Terms Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument. Delivery of an executed Agreement or any Terms Agreement by one party to the other may be made by facsimile or electronic transmission. The words “execution,” “execute”, “signed,” “sign,” “signature,” and words of like import in or related to any document to be signed in connection with this Agreement, any Terms Agreement and the transactions contemplated hereby shall be deemed to include electronic signatures, or the keeping of records in electronic form, each of which shall be of the same legal effect, validity or enforceability as a manually executed signature or the use of a paper-based recordkeeping system, as the case may be, to the extent and as provided for in any applicable law, including the Federal Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, the New York State Electronic Signatures and Records Act, or any other similar state laws based on the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act.

[Remainder of Page Intentionally Blank]

 

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If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and Cowen, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement between the Company and Cowen.

 

Very truly yours,
COWEN AND COMPANY, LLC
By:  

 

  Name:
  Title:
ACCEPTED as of the date first-above written:
OYSTER POINT PHARMA, INC.
By:  

 

  Name:
  Title:

 

Signature page to Sales Agreement


SCHEDULE 1

FORM OF PLACEMENT NOTICE

 

From:

[                ]

Cc:

[                ]

To:

[                ]

Subject:

Cowen At the Market Offering—Placement Notice

Gentlemen:

Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the Sales Agreement between Oyster Point Pharma, Inc. (the “Company”), and Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”) dated November [    ], 2020 (the “Agreement”), I hereby request on behalf of the Company that Cowen sell up to [[    ] shares] [$[            ]] of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share, at a minimum market price of $             per share. Sales should begin on the date of this Notice and shall continue until [DATE] [all shares are sold].


SCHEDULE 2

Notice Parties

Company

[●]

Cowen

 

Michael J. Murphy    Managing Director
William Follis    Managing Director


SCHEDULE 2(b)

OYSTER POINT PHARMA, INC.

[                                 ] SHARES

TERMS AGREEMENT

        , 20    

Cowen and Company, LLC

599 Lexington Avenue

New York, NY 10022

Ladies & Gentlemen:

Oyster Point Pharma, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), proposes, subject to the terms and conditions stated herein and in the Sales Agreement, dated November 5, 2020 (the “Sales Agreement”), between the Company and Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”), to issue and sell to Cowen the securities specified in the Schedule hereto (the “Purchased Securities”). Unless otherwise defined below, terms defined in the Sales Agreement shall have the same meanings when used herein.

Each of the provisions of the Sales Agreement not specifically related to the solicitation by Cowen, as agent of the Company, of offers to purchase securities is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, and shall be deemed to be part of this Terms Agreement to the same extent as if such provisions had been set forth in full herein. Each of the representations, warranties and agreements set forth therein shall be deemed to have been made as of the date of this Terms Agreement and the Settlement Date set forth in the Schedule hereto.

An amendment to the Registration Statement or a supplement to the Prospectus, as the case may be, relating to the Purchased Securities, in the form heretofore delivered to Cowen, is now proposed to be filed with the Commission.

Subject to the terms and conditions set forth herein and in the Sales Agreement which are incorporated herein by reference, the Company agrees to issue and sell to Cowen, and Cowen agrees to purchase from the Company, the Purchased Securities at the time and place and at the purchase price set forth in the Schedule hereto.


Notwithstanding any provision of the Sales Agreement or this Terms Agreement to the contrary, the Company consents to Cowen trading in the Common Stock for Cowen’s own account and for the account of its clients at the same time as sales of the Purchased Securities occur pursuant to this Terms Agreement.

If the foregoing is in accordance with your understanding, please sign and return to us a counterpart hereof, whereupon this Terms Agreement, including those provisions of the Sales Agreement incorporated herein by reference, shall constitute a binding agreement between Cowen and the Company.

 

OYSTER POINT PHARMA, INC.
By:                                                  
Name:
Title:

Accepted and agreed as of

the date first above written:

COWEN AND COMPANY, LLC

 

By:                                                  
Name:
Title:


Schedule to Terms Agreement

Title of Purchased Securities:

Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share

Number of Shares of Purchased Securities:

[] Shares

Purchase Price Payable by Cowen:

$[] per Share

Method of and Specified Funds for Payment of Purchase Price:

[By wire transfer to a bank account specified by the Company in same day funds.]

Method of Delivery:

[To Cowen’s account, or the account of Cowen’s designee, at The Depository Trust Company via DWAC in return for payment of the purchase price.]

Settlement Date:

[], 20[]

Closing Location:

[]

Documents to be Delivered:

The following documents referred to in the Sales Agreement shall be delivered on the Settlement Date as a condition to the closing for the Purchased Securities (which documents shall be dated on or as of the Settlement Date and shall be appropriately updated to cover any Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses and any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, any Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses and any documents incorporated by reference therein):

 

  (1)

the opinion and negative assurance letter referred to in Section 8(e);

 

  (2)

the opinion and negative assurance letter referred to in Section 8(f)

 

  (3)

the “comfort letter” referred to in Section 8(g);

 

  (4)

the representation certificate referred to in Section 8(h);

 

  (5)

the secretary’s certificate referred to in Section 8(i)

 

  (6)

[the CFO certificate referred to in Section 8j; and]5

 

  (7)

such other documents as Cowen shall reasonably request.

 

 

5 

Note to Draft: If applicable.


Time of sale: [] [a.m./p.m.] (New York City time) on [], []

Time of sale information:

 

   

The number of shares of Purchased Securities set forth above.


SCHEDULE 3

Compensation

Cowen shall be paid compensation equal to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from the sales of Shares in an Agency Transaction pursuant to the terms of this Agreement.


Exhibit 7(m)

OFFICER CERTIFICATE

The undersigned, the duly qualified and elected                                         , of Oyster Point Pharma, Inc. (“Company”), a Delaware corporation, does hereby certify in such capacity and on behalf of the Company, pursuant to Section 7(m) of the Sales Agreement dated November             , 2020 (the “Sales Agreement”) between the Company and Cowen and Company, LLC, that to the best of the knowledge of the undersigned.

(i)    The representations and warranties of the Company in Section 6 of the Sales Agreement (A) to the extent such representations and warranties are subject to qualifications and exceptions contained therein relating to materiality or Material Adverse Change, are true and correct on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof, except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date, and (B) to the extent such representations and warranties are not subject to any qualifications or exceptions, are true and correct in all material respects as of the date hereof as if made on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date; and

(ii)    The Company has complied with all agreements and satisfied all conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied pursuant to the Sales Agreement at or prior to the date hereof.

 

By:                                                             
      Name:
      Title:

Date:                                             


Exhibit 7(n)(i)

MATTERS TO BE COVERED BY INITIAL OPINION OF

[Name of the Company’s Counsel]

 

  (i)

As of [Date], the Company had an authorized capitalization as set forth in its statements of financial condition included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended [Date]. All of the outstanding shares of Common Stock conform, in all material respects, to the description thereof contained in the Prospectus.

 

  (ii)

The Company is a corporation duly incorporated and in good standing under the laws of the State of [                        ]. The Company has the corporate power to own, lease and operate its properties and conduct its business in all material respects as described under the headings “Item 1 Business” and “Item 2 Properties” in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended [Date].

 

  (iii)

To the knowledge of such counsel, the Company is duly qualified or registered to transact business in each jurisdiction set forth on Schedule 1 hereto in which the failure, individually or in the aggregate, to be so qualified could reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Change. To the knowledge of such counsel, other than the Company’s interests in its subsidiaries or as disclosed in the Prospectus, the Company does not own, directly or indirectly, any capital stock or other equity securities of any other corporation or any ownership interest in any limited liability company, partnership, joint venture or other association.

 

  (iv)

The execution, delivery and performance of the Sales Agreement [and the Terms Agreement] by the Company and the transactions contemplated thereby do not conflict with, or result in any breach of, or constitute a default under (nor constitute an event that with notice, lapse of time or both would constitute a breach of or default under), (i) the charter or bylaws of the Company, (ii) any agreement listed on Schedule 2 hereto or (iii) to our knowledge, any Applicable Law or any decree, judgment or order applicable to the Company (other than state and foreign securities or blue sky laws, as to which we express no opinion), except in the case of clauses (ii) and (iii) for such conflicts, breaches or defaults, which individually or in the aggregate could not be reasonably expected to have a Material Adverse Change.

 

  (v)

The Company has the corporate power to execute and deliver the Agreement [and the Terms Agreement] and to issue, sell and deliver the Shares as contemplated in the Agreement [and the Terms Agreement]. The Agreement [and the Terms Agreement] has been duly authorized, executed and, delivered by the Company.


  (vi)

No approval, authorization, consent or order of, or filing with, any federal or state governmental or regulatory commission, board, body, authority or agency is required under Applicable Law in connection with the execution, delivery and performance of the Sales Agreement [and the Terms Agreement], or the consummation of the transactions contemplated thereby, by the Company, other than such as have been obtained or made under the Securities Act or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and such approvals as have been obtained in connection with the listing of the Shares on the Nasdaq Stock Market; provided, however, that we do not express any opinion as to any necessary qualification under the securities or blue sky laws of the various jurisdictions in which the Shares are being offered by Cowen or any approval of the underwriting terms and arrangements relating to the offering of the Shares by the FINRA.

 

  (vii)

The Shares, when issued and delivered by the Company pursuant to the Resolutions and the Agreement [and the Terms Agreement] against payment of the consideration set forth therein, will be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

 

  (viii)

The issuance and sale of the Shares by the Company is not subject to preemptive or other similar rights arising under the charter or bylaws of the Company or under any agreement known to us to which the Company is a party.

 

  (ix)

To our knowledge, except as otherwise described in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the documents incorporated therein by reference or the exhibits filed in connection therewith, there are no persons with registration or other similar rights to have any securities registered pursuant to the Registration Statement.

 

  (x)

At the time the Registration Statement became effective, the Registration Statement and, as of the date of the Sales Agreement and the date hereof, the Prospectus (in each case, other than the financial statements, financial schedules and other financial and statistical data included or incorporated by reference in, or excluded from, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as to which we express no opinion) complied as to form in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

  (xi)

The statements under the caption “Description of Capital Stock” in the Prospectus, insofar as such statements constitute a summary of the legal matters referred to therein, constitute accurate summaries thereof in all material respects as of the date of such statements.

 

  (xii)

To our knowledge, there are no actions, suits or proceedings or inquiries or investigations, pending or threatened, against the Company or any of its officers and directors or to which the Company’s assets (excluding the Company’s direct or indirect interests in the Subsidiaries) are subject, at law

 

2


  or in equity, before or by any federal, state, local or foreign governmental or regulatory commission, board, body, authority, arbitration panel or agency that are required to be described in the Prospectus or the documents incorporated therein by reference but are not so described.

 

  (xiii)

The Company is not an “investment company” required to register under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, (the “1940 Act”) or a company “controlled” by an “investment company” within the meaning of the 1940 Act.

 

  (xiv)

The Common Stock to be issued and sold by the Company pursuant to the Sales Agreement [and the Terms Agreement] are duly listed, and admitted and authorized for trading, subject to official notice of issuance, on the Nasdaq.

 

  (xv)

The statements contained in the Prospectus Supplement under the caption “Certain Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” insofar as such statements constitute matters of law, summaries of legal matters, or legal conclusions, have been reviewed by us and fairly present and summarize, in all material respects, the matters referred to therein.

The Registration Statement became effective under the Securities Act on [    ], 20[ ] and, to our knowledge, no stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement has been issued under the Securities Act or proceedings therefor initiated or threatened by the Commission.

In addition, we have reviewed the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and participated in conferences with officers and other representatives of the Company, representatives of independent public accountants for the Company at which the contents of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and related matters were discussed, although we are not passing upon, and do not assume any responsibility for, the accuracy, completeness or fairness of the statements contained or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and have not made any independent check or verification thereof, during the course of such participation, nothing has come to our attention that leads us to believe that the Registration Statement, at the time such Registration Statement became effective and as of the date of the Sales Agreement , contained an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading or that the Prospectus, as of the date of the Sales Agreement or the date hereof, included or includes an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted or omits to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading (it being understood that we express no belief with respect to the financial statements, financial schedules and other financial or statistical data included or incorporated by reference in, or excluded from, the Registration Statement or the Prospectus).

The limitations inherent in the independent verification of factual matters and the character of determinations involved in the preparation of a disclosure document are such, however, that we do not assume any responsibility, except as otherwise stated in opinion (xiii) above, for the accuracy, completeness or fairness of the statements contained in the Registration Statement or Prospectus or any amendments or supplements thereto (including any of the documents incorporated by reference therein).

 

3


Exhibit 7(n)(ii)

Matters to be covered by subsequent Company Counsel Opinions

The Registration Statement, when it became effective, and the Prospectus and any amendment or supplement thereto, on the date of filing thereof with the Commission, complied as to form in all material respects with the requirements for registration statements on Form S-3 under the Securities Act and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder, and each of the documents incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, on the date of filing thereof with the Commission, complied as to form in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder; it being understood, however, that we express no opinion with respect to the financial statements, schedules or other financial or statistical data included or incorporated by reference in, or omitted from, the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any other document. In passing upon the compliance as to form of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and any other document, we have assumed that the statements made and incorporated by reference therein are correct and complete.

(a)     The Registration Statement has become effective under the Securities Act and, to the best of our knowledge, no stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement has been issued and no proceeding for that purpose has been instituted by the Commission.

(b)     To our knowledge and other than as set forth in the Prospectus, there are no legal or governmental proceedings, pending or threatened, to which the Company is a party required to be described in the Prospectus that are not described as required.

In addition, we have participated in conferences with officers and other representatives of the Company, representatives of the independent public accountants for the Company, and your representatives, at which the contents of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and related matters were discussed and, although we are not passing upon, and do not assume any responsibility for, the accuracy, completeness or fairness of the statements contained or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, during the course of such participation, no facts came to our attention that caused us to believe that the Registration Statement, at the time it became effective and as of the date hereof, contained an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, or that the Prospectus (including the Incorporated Documents), as of its date and as of the date hereof, contained an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; it being understood that we express no belief with respect to the financial statements, schedules and other financial and statistical data included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus.

* Note: “Registration Statement” and “Prospectus” will be defined to include documents incorporated by reference therein (“Incorporated Documents”).


[Exhibit 7(p)]

[CFO Certificate]

 

2

EX-4.5

Exhibit 4.5

OYSTER POINT PHARMA, INC.

Issuer

AND

[TRUSTEE],

Trustee

INDENTURE

Dated as of

Debt Securities


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

          PAGE  

ARTICLE 1 DEFINITIONS

     1  

Section 1.01

   Definitions of Terms      1  

ARTICLE 2 ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

     5  

Section 2.01

   Designation and Terms of Securities      5  

Section 2.02

   Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate      8  

Section 2.03

   Denominations: Provisions for Payment      8  

Section 2.04

   Execution and Authentications      10  

Section 2.05

   Registration of Transfer and Exchange      11  

Section 2.06

   Temporary Securities      12  

Section 2.07

   Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities      12  

Section 2.08

   Cancellation      13  

Section 2.09

   Benefits of Indenture      13  

Section 2.10

   Authenticating Agent      14  

Section 2.11

   Global Securities      14  

Section 2.12

   CUSIP Numbers      15  

ARTICLE 3 REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

     16  

Section 3.01

   Redemption      16  

Section 3.02

   Notice of Redemption      16  

Section 3.03

   Payment Upon Redemption      17  

Section 3.04

   Sinking Fund      17  

Section 3.05

   Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities      18  

Section 3.06

   Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund      18  

ARTICLE 4 COVENANTS

     18  

Section 4.01

   Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest      18  

Section 4.02

   Maintenance of Office or Agency      19  

Section 4.03

   Paying Agents      19  

Section 4.04

   Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee      20  

 

i.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

(CONTINUED)

 

          PAGE  

ARTICLE 5 SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE

     20  

Section 5.01

   Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders      20  

Section 5.02

   Preservation Of Information; Communications With Securityholders      21  

Section 5.03

   Reports by the Company      21  

Section 5.04

   Reports by the Trustee      22  

ARTICLE 6 REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

     22  

Section 6.01

   Events of Default      22  

Section 6.02

   Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee      24  

Section 6.03

   Application of Moneys Collected      25  

Section 6.04

   Limitation on Suits      26  

Section 6.05

   Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver      26  

Section 6.06

   Control by Securityholders      27  

Section 6.07

   Undertaking to Pay Costs      27  

ARTICLE 7 CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

     28  

Section 7.01

   Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee      28  

Section 7.02

   Certain Rights of Trustee      29  

Section 7.03

   Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities      31  

Section 7.04

   May Hold Securities      32  

Section 7.05

   Moneys Held in Trust      32  

Section 7.06

   Compensation and Reimbursement      32  

Section 7.07

   Reliance on Officer’s Certificate      33  

Section 7.08

   Disqualification; Conflicting Interests      33  

Section 7.09

   Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility      33  

Section 7.10

   Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor      33  

Section 7.11

   Acceptance of Appointment By Successor      35  

Section 7.12

   Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business      36  

 

ii.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

(CONTINUED)

 

          PAGE  

Section 7.13

   Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company      36  

Section 7.14

   Notice of Default.      36  

ARTICLE 8 CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

     37  

Section 8.01

   Evidence of Action by Securityholders      37  

Section 8.02

   Proof of Execution by Securityholders      37  

Section 8.03

   Who May be Deemed Owners      38  

Section 8.04

   Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded      38  

Section 8.05

   Actions Binding on Future Securityholders      38  

ARTICLE 9 SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

     39  

Section 9.01

   Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders      39  

Section 9.02

   Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders      40  

Section 9.03

   Effect of Supplemental Indentures      40  

Section 9.04

   Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures      41  

Section 9.05

   Execution of Supplemental Indentures      41  

ARTICLE 10 SUCCESSOR ENTITY

     41  

Section 10.01

   Company May Consolidate, Etc.      41  

Section 10.02

   Successor Entity Substituted      42  

ARTICLE 11 SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE

     42  

Section 11.01

   Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture      42  

Section 11.02

   Discharge of Obligations      43  

Section 11.03

   Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust      43  

Section 11.04

   Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents      43  

Section 11.05

   Repayment to Company      44  

ARTICLE 12 IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS

     44  

Section 12.01

   No Recourse      44  

ARTICLE 13 MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

     45  

Section 13.01

   Effect on Successors and Assigns      45  

Section 13.02

   Actions by Successor      45  

Section 13.03

   Surrender of Company Powers      45  

 

iii.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

(CONTINUED)

 

          PAGE  

Section 13.04

  

Notices

     45  

Section 13.05

  

Governing Law; Jury Trial Waiver

     45  

Section 13.06

  

Treatment of Securities as Debt

     46  

Section 13.07

  

Certificates and Opinions as to Conditions Precedent

     46  

Section 13.08

  

Payments on Business Days

     46  

Section 13.09

  

Conflict with Trust Indenture Act

     47  

Section 13.10

  

Counterparts

     47  

Section 13.11

  

Separability

     47  

Section 13.12

  

Compliance Certificates

     47  

Section 13.13

  

Patriot Act

     47  

Section 13.14

  

Force Majeure

     48  

Section 13.15

   Table of Contents; Headings      48  

 

iv.


INDENTURE

INDENTURE, dated as of [•], 20__, among OYSTER POINT PHARMA, INC., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and [TRUSTEE], as trustee (the “Trustee”):

WHEREAS, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as in this Indenture provided, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;

WHEREAS, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:

ARTICLE 1

DEFINITIONS

Section 1.01 Definitions of Terms.

The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or that are by reference in such Act defined in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.

Authenticating Agent” means the Trustee or an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.

Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors (or the functional equivalent thereof) of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.

 

1


Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors (or duly authorized committee thereof) and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.

Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a day on which federal or state banking institutions in the Borough of Manhattan, the City of New York, or in the city of the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.

Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Exchange Act, or, if at any time after the execution of this instrument such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.

Company” means OYSTER POINT PHARMA, INC., a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of DELAWARE, and, subject to the provisions of Article Ten, shall also include its successors and assigns.

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at .

Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

Defaulted Interest” has the meaning set forth in Section 2.03.

Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or 2.11.

Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series, any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.

Exchange Act” means the United States Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission thereunder.

The term “given”, “mailed”, “notify” or “sent” with respect to any notice to be given to a Securityholder pursuant to this Indenture, shall mean notice (x) given to the Depositary (or its designee) pursuant to the standing instructions from the Depositary or its designee, including by electronic mail in accordance with accepted practices or procedures at the Depositary (in the case of a Global Security) or (y) mailed to such Securityholder by first class mail, postage prepaid, at its address as it appears on the Security Register (in the case of a definitive Security). Notice so “given” shall be deemed to include any notice to be “mailed” or “delivered,” as applicable, under this Indenture.

 

2


Global Security” means a Security issued to evidence all or a part of any series of Securities which is executed by the Company and authenticated and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with the Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (a) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (b) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof at any time prior to the stated maturity of the Securities, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

herein”, “hereof and “hereunder”, and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof and shall include the terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated by Section 2.01.

Interest Payment Date”, when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.

Officer” means, with respect to the Company, the chairman of the Board of Directors, a chief executive officer, a president, a chief financial officer, a chief operating officer, any executive vice president, any senior vice president, any vice president, the treasurer or any assistant treasurer, the controller or any assistant controller or the secretary or any assistant secretary.

Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer. Each such certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

3


Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing subject to customary exceptions of legal counsel, who may be an employee of or counsel for the Company, that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Each such opinion shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except (a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for cancellation or that have previously been canceled; (b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as provided in Article Three, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and (c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07.

Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, joint-stock company, limited liability company, association, trust, unincorporated organization, any other entity or organization, including a government or political subdivision or an agency or instrumentality thereof.

Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a lost, destroyed or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the lost, destroyed or stolen Security.

Responsible Officer” when used with respect to the Trustee means any officer within the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee (or any successor group of the Trustee) or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject and in each case who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture.

Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture and more particularly means any Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

Securityholder”, “holder of Securities”, “registered holder”, or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security is registered on the Security Register kept for that purpose in accordance with the terms of this Indenture.

 

4


Security Register” and “Security Registrar” shall have the meanings as set forth in Section 2.05.

Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, any corporation, association, partnership or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of capital stock or other interests (including partnership interests) entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers, general partners or trustees thereof is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by (i) such Person; (ii) such Person and one or more Subsidiaries of such Person; or (iii) one or more Subsidiaries of such Person.

Trustee” means _________________________, and, subject to the provisions of Article Seven, shall also include its successors and assigns, and, if at any time there is more than one Person acting in such capacity hereunder, “Trustee” shall mean each such Person. The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.

Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.

“U.S.A. Patriot Act” means the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107-56, as amended and signed into law October 26, 2001.

ARTICLE 2

ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

Section 2.01 Designation and Terms of Securities.

(a) The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto. Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of any series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:

(1) the title of the Securities of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that series from all other Securities);

(2) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);

 

5


(3) the maturity date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable;

(4) the form of the Securities of the series including the form of the certificate of authentication for such series;

(5) the applicability of any guarantees;

(6) whether or not the Securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

(7) whether the Securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

(8) if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such Securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such Securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

(9) the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

(10) the Company’s right, if any, to defer the payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

(11) if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, the Company may at its option, redeem the series of Securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

(12) the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which the Company is obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the Securityholder’s option to purchase, the series of Securities and the currency or currency unit in which the Securities are payable;

(13) the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable, if other than denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof;

(14) any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the Securities of that series and any security for the obligations of the Company with respect to such Securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that series;

 

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(15) whether the Securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a Global Security or Securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such Global Security or Securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual Securities; and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities;

(16) if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any Securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at the Company’s option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange, which may, without limitation, include the payment of cash as well as the delivery of securities;

(17) if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01;

(18) additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the series of Securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

(19) additions to or changes in the Events of Default with respect to the Securities and any change in the right of the Trustee or the Securityholders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such Securities to be due and payable;

(20) additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

(21) additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture;

(22) additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of this Indenture both with and without the consent of Securityholders of Securities issued under this Indenture;

(23) the currency of payment of Securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

(24) whether interest will be payable in cash or additional Securities at the Company’s or the Securityholders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

(25) the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the Company shall pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the Securities of the series to any Securityholder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

 

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(26) any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the Securities of the series; and

(27) any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the Securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of this Indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to any such Board Resolution or in any indentures supplemental hereto.

If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officer’s Certificate of the Company setting forth the terms of the series.

Securities of any particular series may be issued at various times, with different dates on which the principal or any installment of principal is payable, with different rates of interest, if any, or different methods by which rates of interest may be determined, with different dates on which such interest may be payable and with different redemption dates.

Section 2.02 Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate.

The Securities of any series and the Trustee’s certificate of authentication to be borne by such Securities shall be substantially of the tenor and purport as set forth in one or more indentures supplemental hereto or as provided in a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, and they may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the Company may deem appropriate and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any securities exchange on which Securities of that series may be listed, or to conform to usage.

Section 2.03 Denominations: Provisions for Payment.

The Securities shall be issuable as registered Securities and in the denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, subject to Section 2.01(a)(13). The Securities of a particular series shall bear interest payable on the dates and at the rate specified with respect to that series. Subject to Section 2.01(a)(23), the principal of and the interest on the Securities of any series, as well as any premium thereon in case of redemption or repurchase thereof prior to maturity, and any cash amount due upon conversion or exchange thereof, shall be payable in the coin or currency of the United States of America that at the time is legal tender for public and private debt, at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. Interest on the Securities shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year composed of twelve 30-day months.

 

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The interest installment on any Security that is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of that series shall be paid to the Person in whose name said Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest installment. In the event that any Security of a particular series or portion thereof is called for redemption and the redemption date is subsequent to a regular record date with respect to any Interest Payment Date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, interest on such Security will be paid upon presentation and surrender of such Security as provided in Section 3.03.

Any interest on any Security that is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of the same series (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the registered holder on the relevant regular record date by virtue of having been such holder; and such Defaulted Interest shall be paid by the Company, at its election, as provided in clause (1) or clause (2) below:

(1) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on Securities to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered in the Security Register at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner: the Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each such Security and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause provided. Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall not be more than 15 nor less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such special record date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor to be sent, to each Securityholder not less than 10 days prior to such special record date. Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor having been sent as aforesaid, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered in the Security Register on such special record date.

(2) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on any Securities in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.

 

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Unless otherwise set forth in a Board Resolution or one or more indentures supplemental hereto establishing the terms of any series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the term “regular record date” as used in this Section with respect to a series of Securities and any Interest Payment Date for such series shall mean either the fifteenth day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a month, or the first day of the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the fifteenth day of a month, whether or not such date is a Business Day.

Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section, each Security of a series delivered under this Indenture upon transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security of such series shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, that were carried by such other Security.

Section 2.04 Execution and Authentications.

The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Company by one of its Officers. Signatures may be in the form of a manual or facsimile signature.

The Company may use the facsimile signature of any Person who shall have been an Officer (at the time of execution), notwithstanding the fact that at the time the Securities shall be authenticated and delivered or disposed of such Person shall have ceased to be such an officer of the Company. The Securities may contain such notations,

legends or endorsements required by law, stock exchange rule or usage. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication by the Trustee.

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated manually by an authorized signatory of the Trustee, or by an Authenticating Agent. Such signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture. At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a written order of the Company for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, signed by an Officer, and the Trustee in accordance with such written order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities.

Upon the Company’s delivery of any such authentication order to the Trustee at any time after the initial issuance of Securities under this Indenture, the Trustee shall be provided with, and (subject to Sections 315(a) through 315(d) of the Trust Indenture Act) shall be fully protected in relying upon, (1) an Opinion of Counsel or reliance letter and (2) an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent to the execution, authentication and delivery of such Securities are in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture.

The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner that is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

 

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Section 2.05 Registration of Transfer and Exchange.

(a) Securities of any series may be exchanged upon presentation thereof at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, for other Securities of such series of authorized denominations, and for a like aggregate principal amount, upon payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, all as provided in this Section. In respect of any Securities so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange therefor the Security or Securities of the same series that the Securityholder making the exchange shall be entitled to receive, bearing numbers not contemporaneously outstanding.

(b) The Company shall keep, or cause to be kept, at its office or agency designated for such purpose a register or registers (herein referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall register the Securities and the transfers of Securities as in this Article provided and which at all reasonable times shall be open for inspection by the Trustee. The registrar for the purpose of registering Securities and transfer of Securities as herein provided shall be appointed as authorized by Board Resolution or Supplemental Indenture (the “Security Registrar”).

Upon surrender for transfer of any Security at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series as the Security presented for a like aggregate principal amount.

The Company initially appoints the Trustee as Security Registrar for each series of Securities.

All Securities presented or surrendered for exchange or registration of transfer, as provided in this Section, shall be accompanied (if so required by the Company or the Security Registrar) by a written instrument or instruments of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Company or the Security Registrar, duly executed by the registered holder or by such holder’s duly authorized attorney in writing.

(c) Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01 pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, no service charge shall be made for any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities, or issue of new Securities in case of partial redemption of any series or repurchase, conversion or exchange of less than the entire principal amount of a Security, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 2.06, Section 3.03(b) and Section 9.04 not involving any transfer.

(d) The Company and the Security Registrar shall not be required (i) to issue, exchange or register the transfer of any Securities during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the sending of a notice of redemption of less than all the Outstanding Securities of the same series and ending at the close of business on the day of such sending, nor (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Securities of any series or portions thereof called for redemption or surrendered for repurchase, but not validly withdrawn, other than the unredeemed portion of any such Securities being redeemed in part or not surrendered for repurchase, as the case may be. The provisions of this Section 2.05 are, with respect to any Global Security, subject to Section 2.11 hereof.

 

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The Trustee shall have no obligation or duty to monitor, determine or inquire as to compliance with any restrictions on transfer imposed under this Indenture or under applicable law with respect to any transfer of any interest in any Security (including any transfers between or among Depositary participants or beneficial owners of interests in any Global Security) other than to require delivery of such certificates and other documentation or evidence as are expressly required by, and to do so if and when expressly required by the terms of, this Indenture, and to examine the same to determine substantial compliance as to form with the express requirements hereof.

Section 2.06 Temporary Securities.

Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities (printed, lithographed or typewritten) of any authorized denomination. Such temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued, but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Company. Every temporary Security of any series shall be executed by the Company and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities of such series. Without unnecessary delay the Company will execute and will furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon any or all temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor (without charge to the Securityholders), at the office or agency of the Company designated for the purpose, and the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of such series, unless the Company advises the Trustee to the effect that definitive Securities need not be executed and furnished until further notice from the Company. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of such series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series authenticated and delivered hereunder.

Section 2.07 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities.

In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company (subject to the next succeeding sentence) shall execute, and upon the Company’s request the Trustee (subject as aforesaid) shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated Security, or in lieu of and in substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen. In every case the applicant for a substituted Security shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Company and the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of the applicant’s Security and of the ownership thereof. The Trustee may authenticate any such substituted Security and deliver the same upon the written request or authorization of any officer of the Company. Upon the issuance of any substituted Security, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

 

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In case any Security that has matured or is about to mature shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company may, instead of issuing a substitute Security, pay or authorize the payment of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated Security) if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as they may require to save them harmless, and, in case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

Every replacement Security issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Company whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be found at any time, or be enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of the same series duly issued hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) any and all other rights or remedies, notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

Section 2.08 Cancellation.

All Securities surrendered for the purpose of payment, redemption, repurchase, exchange, registration of transfer or conversion shall, if surrendered to the Company or any paying agent (or any other applicable agent), be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it, and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly required or permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. On request of the Company at the time of such surrender, the Trustee shall deliver to the Company canceled Securities held by the Trustee. In the absence of such request the Trustee may dispose of canceled Securities in accordance with its standard procedures and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Company. If the Company shall otherwise acquire any of the Securities, however, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

Section 2.09 Benefits of Indenture.

Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and the holders of the Securities any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under or in respect of this Indenture, or under any covenant, condition or provision herein contained; all such covenants, conditions and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and of the holders of the Securities.

 

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Section 2.10 Authenticating Agent.

So long as any of the Securities of any series remain Outstanding there may be an Authenticating Agent for any or all such series of Securities which the Trustee shall have the right to appoint. Said Authenticating Agent shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued upon exchange, transfer or partial redemption, repurchase or conversion thereof, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder. All references in this Indenture to the authentication of Securities by the Trustee shall be deemed to include authentication by an Authenticating Agent for such series. Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall be a corporation that has a combined capital and surplus, as most recently reported or determined by it, sufficient under the laws of any jurisdiction under which it is organized or in which it is doing business to conduct a trust business, and that is otherwise authorized under such laws to conduct such business and is subject to supervision or examination by federal or state authorities. If at any time any Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with these provisions, it shall resign immediately.

Any Authenticating Agent may at any time resign by giving written notice of resignation to the Trustee and to the Company. The Trustee may at any time (and upon request by the Company shall) terminate the agency of any Authenticating Agent by giving written notice of termination to such Authenticating Agent and to the Company. Upon resignation, termination or cessation of eligibility of any Authenticating Agent, the Trustee may appoint an eligible successor Authenticating Agent acceptable to the Company. Any successor Authenticating Agent, upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder, shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent pursuant hereto.

Section 2.11 Global Securities.

(a) If the Company shall establish pursuant to Section 2.01 that the Securities of a particular series are to be issued as a Global Security, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with Section 2.04, authenticate and deliver, a Global Security that (i) shall represent, and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of, all of the Outstanding Securities of such series, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction (or if the Depositary names the Trustee as its custodian, retained by the Trustee), and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.11 of the Indenture, this Security may be transferred, in whole but not in part, only to another nominee of the Depositary or to a successor Depositary or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.”

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 2.05, the Global Security of a series may be transferred, in whole but not in part and in the manner provided in Section 2.05, only to another nominee of the Depositary for such series, or to a successor Depositary for such series selected or approved by the Company or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.

 

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(c) If at any time the Depositary for a series of the Securities notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such series or if at any time the Depositary for such series shall no longer be registered or in good standing under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, and a successor Depositary for such series is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company receives such notice or becomes aware of such condition, as the case may be, or if an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing and the Company has received a request from the Depositary or from the Trustee, this Section 2.11 shall no longer be applicable to the Securities of such series and the Company will execute, and subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. In addition, the Company may at any time determine that the Securities of any series shall no longer be represented by a Global Security and that the provisions of this Section 2.11 shall no longer apply to the Securities of such series. In such event the Company will execute and, subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate evidencing such determination by the Company, will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. Upon the exchange of the Global Security for such Securities in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, the Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee. Such Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for the Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.11(c) shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee. The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to the Depositary for delivery to the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

Section 2.12 CUSIP Numbers.

The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Securityholders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other elements of identification printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers. The Company will promptly notify the Trustee of any change in the “CUSIP” numbers.

 

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ARTICLE 3

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

Section 3.01 Redemption.

The Company may redeem the Securities of any series issued hereunder on and after the dates and in accordance with the terms established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.

Section 3.02 Notice of Redemption.

(a) In case the Company shall desire to exercise such right to redeem all or, as the case may be, a portion of the Securities of any series in accordance with any right the Company reserved for itself to do so pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the Company shall, or shall cause the Trustee to, give notice of such redemption to holders of the Securities of such series to be redeemed by mailing (or with regard to any Global Security held in book entry form, by electronic mail in accordance with the applicable procedures of the Depositary), a notice of such redemption not less than 30 days and not more than 90 days before the date fixed for redemption of that series to such Securityholders, unless a shorter period is specified in the Securities to be redeemed. Any notice that is mailed in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the registered holder receives the notice. In any case, failure duly to give such notice to the holder of any Security of any series designated for redemption in whole or in part, or any defect in the notice, shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Securities of such series or any other series. In the case of any redemption of Securities prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall furnish the Trustee with an Officer’s Certificate evidencing compliance with any such restriction.

Each such notice of redemption shall identify the Securities to be redeemed (including CUSIP numbers, if any), specify the date fixed for redemption and the redemption price at which Securities of that series are to be redeemed, and shall state that payment of the redemption price of such Securities to be redeemed will be made at the office or agency of the Company, upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in said notice, that from and after said date interest will cease to accrue and that the redemption is from a sinking fund, if such is the case. If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the notice to the holders of Securities of that series to be redeemed in part shall specify the particular Securities to be so redeemed.

In case any Security is to be redeemed in part only, the notice that relates to such Security shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed, and shall state that on and after the redemption date, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.

 

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(b) If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Company shall give the Trustee at least 45 days’ notice (unless a shorter notice shall be satisfactory to the Trustee) in advance of the date fixed for redemption as to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of the series to be redeemed, and thereupon the Securities to be redeemed shall be selected, by lot, on a pro rata basis, or in such other manner as the Company shall deem appropriate and fair in its discretion and that may provide for the selection of a portion or portions (equal to one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof) of the principal amount of such Securities of a denomination larger than $1,000, the Securities to be redeemed and shall thereafter promptly notify the Company in writing of the numbers of the Securities to be redeemed, in whole or in part. The Company may, if and whenever it shall so elect, by delivery of instructions signed on its behalf by an Officer, instruct the Trustee or any paying agent to call all or any part of the Securities of a particular series for redemption and to give notice of redemption in the manner set forth in this Section, such notice to be in the name of the Company or its own name as the Trustee or such paying agent may deem advisable. In any case in which notice of redemption is to be given by the Trustee or any such paying agent, the Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to, or permit to remain with, the Trustee or such paying agent, as the case may be, such Security Register, transfer books or other records, or suitable copies or extracts therefrom, sufficient to enable the Trustee or such paying agent to give any notice by mail that may be required under the provisions of this Section.

Section 3.03 Payment Upon Redemption.

(a) If the giving of notice of redemption shall have been completed as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities of the series to be redeemed specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to, but excluding, the date fixed for redemption and interest on such Securities or portions of Securities shall cease to accrue on and after the date fixed for redemption, unless the Company shall default in the payment of such redemption price and accrued interest with respect to any such Security or portion thereof. On presentation and surrender of such Securities on or after the date fixed for redemption at the place of payment specified in the notice, said Securities shall be paid and redeemed at the applicable redemption price for such series, together with interest accrued thereon to, but excluding, the date fixed for redemption (but if the date fixed for redemption is an Interest Payment Date, the interest installment payable on such date shall be payable to the registered holder at the close of business on the applicable record date pursuant to Section 2.03).

(b) Upon presentation of any Security of such series that is to be redeemed in part only, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and the office or agency where the Security is presented shall deliver to the Securityholder thereof, at the expense of the Company, a new Security of the same series of authorized denominations in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.

Section 3.04 Sinking Fund.

The provisions of Sections 3.04, 3.05 and 3.06 shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.01 for Securities of such series.

 

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The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment,” and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment”. If provided for by the terms of Securities of any series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 3.05. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any series as provided for by the terms of Securities of such series.

Section 3.05 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

The Company (i) may deliver Outstanding Securities of a series and (ii) may apply as a credit Securities of a series that have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments pursuant to the terms of such Securities, in each case in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of such series required to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities as provided for by the terms of such series, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received and credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the redemption price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly.

Section 3.06 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.

Not less than 45 days prior to each sinking fund payment date for any series of Securities (unless a shorter period shall be satisfactory to the Trustee), the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing sinking fund payment for that series pursuant to the terms of the series, the portion thereof, if any, that is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting Securities of that series pursuant to Section 3.05 and the basis for such credit and will, together with such Officer’s Certificate, deliver to the Trustee any Securities to be so delivered. Not less than 30 days before each such sinking fund payment date the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date shall be selected in the manner specified in Section 3.02 and the Company shall cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.02. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Section 3.03.

ARTICLE 4

COVENANTS

Section 4.01 Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest.

The Company will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the Securities of that series at the time and place and in the manner provided herein and established with respect to such Securities. Payments of principal on the Securities may be made at the time provided herein and established with respect to such Securities by U.S. dollar check drawn on and mailed to the address of the Securityholder entitled

 

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thereto as such address shall appear in the Security Register, or U.S. dollar wire transfer to, a U.S. dollar account if such Securityholder shall have furnished wire instructions to the Trustee no later than 15 days prior to the relevant payment date. Payments of interest on the Securities may be made at the time provided herein and established with respect to such Securities by U.S. dollar check mailed to the address of the Securityholder entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the Security Register, or U.S. dollar wire transfer to, a U.S. dollar account if such Securityholder shall have furnished wire instructions in writing to the Security Registrar and the Trustee no later than 15 days prior to the relevant payment date.

Section 4.02 Maintenance of Office or Agency.

So long as any series of the Securities remain Outstanding, the Company agrees to maintain an office or agency with respect to each such series and at such other location or locations as may be designated as provided in this Section 4.02, where (i) Securities of that series may be presented for payment, (ii) Securities of that series may be presented as herein above authorized for registration of transfer and exchange, and (iii) notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of that series and this Indenture may be given or served, such designation to continue with respect to such office or agency until the Company shall, by written notice signed by any officer authorized to sign an Officer’s Certificate and delivered to the Trustee, designate some other office or agency for such purposes or any of them. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, notices and demands. The Company initially appoints the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee as its paying agent with respect to the Securities.

Section 4.03 Paying Agents.

(a) If the Company shall appoint one or more paying agents for all or any series of the Securities, other than the Trustee, the Company will cause each such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section:

(1) that it will hold all sums held by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Company or by any other obligor of such Securities) in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto;

(2) that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Company (or by any other obligor of such Securities) to make any payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series when the same shall be due and payable;

(3) that it will, at any time during the continuance of any failure referred to in the preceding paragraph (a)(2) above, upon the written request of the Trustee, forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent; and

 

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(4) that it will perform all other duties of paying agent as set forth in this Indenture.

(b) If the Company shall act as its own paying agent with respect to any series of the Securities, it will on or before each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on Securities of that series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto a sum sufficient to pay such principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due on Securities of that series until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided and will promptly notify the Trustee of such action, or any failure (by it or any other obligor on such Securities) to take such action. Whenever the Company shall have one or more paying agents for any series of Securities, it will, prior to each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on any Securities of that series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay the principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due, such sum to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such principal, premium or interest, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Company will promptly notify the Trustee of this action or failure so to act.

(c) Notwithstanding anything in this Section to the contrary, (i) the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, and (ii) the Company may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or for any other purpose, pay, or direct any paying agent to pay, to the Trustee all sums held in trust by the Company or such paying agent, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the same terms and conditions as those upon which such sums were held by the Company or such paying agent; and, upon such payment by the Company or any paying agent to the Trustee, the Company or such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such money.

Section 4.04 Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee.

The Company, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 7.10, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee hereunder.

ARTICLE 5

SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE

Section 5.01 Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders.

The Company will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee (a) within 15 days after each regular record date (as defined in Section 2.03) a list, in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of the holders of each series of Securities as of such regular record date, provided that the Company shall not be obligated to furnish or cause to furnish such list at any time that the list shall not differ in any respect from the most recent list furnished to the Trustee by the Company and (b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing within 30 days after the receipt by the Company of any such request, a list of similar form and content as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such list is furnished; provided, however, that, in either case, no such list need be furnished for any series for which the Trustee shall be the Security Registrar.

 

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Section 5.02 Preservation Of Information; Communications With Securityholders.

(a) The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity).

(b) The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

(c) Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities, and, in connection with any such communications, the Trustee shall satisfy its obligations under Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the provisions of Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

Section 5.03 Reports by the Company.

(a) The Company will at all times comply with Section 314(a) of the Trust Indenture Act. The Company covenants and agrees to provide (which delivery may be via electronic mail) to the Trustee within 30 days, after the Company files the same with the Commission, copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the Commission may from time to time by rules and regulations prescribe) that the Company is required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; provided, however, the Company shall not be required to deliver to the Trustee any correspondence filed with the Commission or any materials for which the Company has sought and received confidential treatment by the Commission; and provided further, that so long as such filings by the Company are available on the Commission’s Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval System (EDGAR), or any successor system, such filings shall be deemed to have been filed with the Trustee for purposes hereof without any further action required by the Company. For the avoidance of doubt, a failure by the Company to file annual reports, information and other reports with the Commission within the time period prescribed thereof by the Commission shall not be deemed a breach of this Section 5.03.

(b) Delivery of reports, information and documents to the Trustee under Section 5.03 is for informational purposes only and the information and the Trustee’s receipt of the foregoing shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein, or determinable from information contained therein including the Company’s compliance with any of their covenants thereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on an Officer’s Certificate). The Trustee is under no duty to examine any such reports, information or

 

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documents delivered to the Trustee or filed with the Commission via EDGAR to ensure compliance with the provision of this Indenture or to ascertain the correctness or otherwise of the information or the statements contained therein. The Trustee shall have no responsibility or duty whatsoever to ascertain or determine whether the above referenced filings with the Commission on EDGAR (or any successor system) has occurred.

Section 5.04 Reports by the Trustee.

(a) If required by Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee, within sixty (60) days after each May 1, shall send to the Securityholders a brief report dated as of such May 1, which complies with Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.

(b) The Trustee shall comply with Section 313(b) and 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act.

(c) A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Securityholders, be filed by the Trustee with the Company, with each securities exchange upon which any Securities are listed (if so listed) and also with the Commission. The Company agrees to notify the Trustee when any Securities become listed on any securities exchange.

ARTICLE 6

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

Section 6.01 Events of Default.

(a) Whenever used herein with respect to Securities of a particular series, “Event of Default” means any one or more of the following events that has occurred and is continuing:

(1) the Company defaults in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of that series, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by the Company in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

(2) the Company defaults in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such Securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

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(3) the Company fails to observe or perform any other of its covenants or agreements with respect to that series contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to that series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof (other than a covenant or agreement that has been expressly included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of one or more series of Securities other than such series) for a period of 90 days after the date on which written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder, shall have been given to the Company by the Trustee, by registered or certified mail, or to the Company and the Trustee by the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Securities of that series at the time Outstanding;

(4) the Company pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law (i) commences a voluntary case, (ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case, (iii) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property or (iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors; or

(5) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order under any Bankruptcy Law that (i) is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case, (ii) appoints a Custodian of the Company for all or substantially all of its property or (iii) orders the liquidation of the Company, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 days.

(b) In each and every such case (other than an Event of Default specified in clause (4) or clause (5) above), unless the principal of all the Securities of that series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by such Securityholders), may declare the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on all the Securities of that series to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become and shall be immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in clause (4) or clause (5) above occurs, the principal of and accrued and unpaid interest on all the Securities of that series shall automatically be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or the holders of the Securities.

(c) At any time after the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on the Securities of that series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before any judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if: (i) the Company has paid or deposited with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of that series and the principal of (and premium, if any, on) any and all Securities of that series that shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest upon such principal and premium, if any, and, to the extent that such payment is enforceable under applicable law, upon overdue installments of interest, at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series to the date of such payment or deposit) and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06, and (ii) any and all Events of Default under the Indenture with respect to such series, other than the nonpayment of principal on (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on Securities of that series that shall not have become due by their terms, shall have been remedied or waived as provided in Section 6.06.

 

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No such rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereon.

(d) In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right with respect to Securities of that series under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned because of such rescission or annulment or for any other reason or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceedings, the Company and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Company and the Trustee shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.

Section 6.02 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

(a) The Company covenants that (i) in case it shall default in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of a series, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series as and when the same shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 90 days, or (ii) in case it shall default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of a series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of a series or upon redemption or upon declaration or otherwise then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Company will pay to the Trustee, for the benefit of the holders of the Securities of that series, the whole amount that then shall have been become due and payable on all such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) or interest, or both, as the case may be, with interest upon the overdue principal (and premium, if any) and (to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law) upon overdue installments of interest at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series; and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06.

(b) If the Company shall fail to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceeding to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series and collect the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable in the manner provided by law or equity out of the property of the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series, wherever situated.

(c) In case of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, readjustment, arrangement, composition or judicial proceedings affecting the Company, or its creditors or property, the Trustee shall have power to intervene in such proceedings and take any action therein that may be permitted by the court and shall (except as may be otherwise provided by law) be entitled to file such proofs of claim and other papers and documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee and of the

 

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holders of Securities of such series allowed for the entire amount due and payable by the Company under the Indenture at the date of institution of such proceedings and for any additional amount that may become due and payable by the Company after such date, and to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claim, and to distribute the same after the deduction of the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06; and any receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization is hereby authorized by each of the holders of Securities of such series to make such payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to such Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it under Section 7.06.

(d) All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the terms established with respect to Securities of that series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of such Securities, or the production thereof at any trial or other proceeding relative thereto, and any such suit or proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for payment to the Trustee of any amounts due under Section 7.06, be for the ratable benefit of the holders of the Securities of such series.

In case of an Event of Default hereunder, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any of such rights, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in the Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture, or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law.

Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of that series or the rights of any Securityholder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding.

Section 6.03 Application of Moneys Collected.

Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article with respect to a particular series of Securities shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal (or premium, if any) or interest, upon presentation of the Securities of that series, and notation thereon of the payment, if only partially paid, and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

FIRST: To the payment of costs and expenses of collection and of all amounts payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06;

SECOND: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid upon Securities of such series for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, respectively; and

THIRD: To the payment of the remainder, if any, to the Company or any other Person lawfully entitled thereto.

 

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Section 6.04 Limitation on Suits.

No holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to institute any suit, action or proceeding in equity or at law upon or under or with respect to this Indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless (i) such Securityholder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of an Event of Default and of the continuance thereof with respect to the Securities of such series specifying such Event of Default, as hereinbefore provided; (ii) the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action, suit or proceeding in its own name as Trustee hereunder; (iii) such Securityholder or Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred in compliance with such request; (iv) the Trustee for 90 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity, shall have failed to institute any such action, suit or proceeding and (v) during such 90 day period, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series do not give the Trustee a direction inconsistent with the request.

Notwithstanding anything contained herein to the contrary or any other provisions of this Indenture, the right of any holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such Security, as therein provided, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security (or in the case of redemption, on the redemption date), or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates or redemption date, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such holder and by accepting a Security hereunder it is expressly understood, intended and covenanted by the taker and holder of every Security of such series with every other such taker and holder and the Trustee, that no one or more holders of Securities of such series shall have any right in any manner whatsoever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of the holders of any other of such Securities, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such holder, or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all holders of Securities of such series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

Section 6.05 Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

(a) Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.07, all powers and remedies given by this Article to the Trustee or to the Securityholders shall, to the extent permitted by law, be deemed cumulative and not exclusive of any other powers and remedies available to the Trustee or the holders of the Securities, by judicial proceedings or otherwise, to enforce the performance or observance of the covenants and agreements contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to such Securities.

 

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(b) No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any holder of any of the Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power, or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such default or an acquiescence therein; and, subject to the provisions of Section 6.04, every power and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or the Securityholders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Securityholders.

Section 6.06 Control by Securityholders.

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to such series; provided, however, that such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture or subject the Trustee in its sole discretion to personal liability. Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer or officers of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed, subject to the Trustee’s duties under the Trust Indenture Act, would involve the Trustee in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the Securityholders not involved in the proceeding. The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding affected thereby, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, may on behalf of the holders of all of the Securities of such series waive any past default in the performance of any of the covenants contained herein or established pursuant to Section 2.01 with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due by the terms of such Securities otherwise than by acceleration (unless such default has been cured and a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest and principal and any premium has been deposited with the Trustee (in accordance with Section 6.01(c)). Upon any such waiver, the default covered thereby shall be deemed to be cured for all purposes of this Indenture and the Company, the Trustee and the holders of the Securities of such series shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or impair any right consequent thereon.

Section 6.07 Undertaking to Pay Costs.

All parties to this Indenture agree, and each holder of any Securities by such holder’s acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees and expenses, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses

 

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made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder, or group of Securityholders, holding more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture.

ARTICLE 7

CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

Section 7.01 Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee.

(a) The Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing of all Events of Default with respect to the Securities of that series that may have occurred, shall undertake to perform with respect to the Securities of such series such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee. In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (that has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs.

(b) No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that:

(i) prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing or waiving of all such Events of Default with respect to that series that may have occurred:

(A) the duties and obligations of the Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of such series be determined solely by the express provisions of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to the Securities of such series except for the performance of such duties and obligations as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee; and

(B) in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may with respect to the Securities of such series conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but in the case of any such certificates or opinions that by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture;

 

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(ii) the Trustee shall not be liable to any Securityholder or to any other Person for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

(iii) the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of that series;

(iv) none of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur personal financial liability in the performance of any of its duties or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers if there is reasonable ground for believing that the repayment of such funds or liability is not reasonably assured to it under the terms of this Indenture or adequate indemnity against such risk is not reasonably assured to it;

(v) The Trustee shall not be required to give any bond or surety in respect of the performance of its powers or duties hereunder;

(vi) The permissive right of the Trustee to do things enumerated in this Indenture shall not be construed as a duty of the Trustee; and

(vii) No Trustee shall have any duty or responsibility for any act or omission of any other Trustee appointed with respect to a series of Securities hereunder.

Section 7.02 Certain Rights of Trustee.

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01:

(a) The Trustee may conclusively rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

(b) Any request, direction, order or demand of the Company mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by a Board Resolution or an instrument signed in the name of the Company by any authorized Officer of the Company (unless other evidence in respect thereof is specifically prescribed herein);

(c) The Trustee may consult with counsel and the opinion or written advice of such counsel or, if requested, any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken or suffered or omitted hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon;

 

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(d) The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Securityholders pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee security or indemnity reasonably acceptable to the Trustee against the costs, expenses and liabilities that may be incurred therein or thereby; nothing contained herein shall, however, relieve the Trustee of the obligation, upon the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to a series of the Securities (that has not been cured or waived), to exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and to use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs;

(e) The Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion or rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

(f) The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security, or other papers or documents or inquire as to the performance by the Company of one of its covenants under this Indenture, unless requested in writing so to do by the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of the particular series affected thereby (determined as provided in Section 8.04); provided, however, that if the payment within a reasonable time to the Trustee of the costs, expenses or liabilities likely to be incurred by it in the making of such investigation is, in the opinion of the Trustee, not reasonably assured to the Trustee by the security afforded to it by the terms of this Indenture, the Trustee may require security or indemnity reasonably acceptable to the Trustee against such costs, expenses or liabilities as a condition to so proceeding. The reasonable expense of every such examination shall be paid by the Company or, if paid by the Trustee, shall be repaid by the Company upon demand;

(g) The Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder;

(h) In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including, without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services; it being understood that the Trustee shall use reasonable efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances;

(i) In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for special, indirect, punitive or consequential loss or damage of any kind whatsoever (including, but not limited to, loss of profit) irrespective of whether the Trustee has been advised of the likelihood of such loss or damage and regardless of the form of action; and

 

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(j) The Trustee agrees to accept and act upon instructions or directions pursuant to this Indenture sent by unsecured e-mail, facsimile transmission or other similar unsecured electronic methods; provided, however, that such instructions or directions shall be signed by an authorized representative of the party providing such instructions or directions. If the party elects to give the Trustee e-mail or facsimile instructions (or instructions by a similar electronic method) and the Trustee in its discretion elects to act upon such instructions, the Trustee’s understanding of such instructions shall be deemed controlling. The Trustee shall not be liable for any losses, costs or expenses arising directly or indirectly from the Trustee’s reliance upon and compliance with such instructions notwithstanding such instructions conflict or are inconsistent with a subsequent written instruction. The party providing electronic instructions agrees to assume all risks arising out of the use of such electronic methods to submit instructions and directions to the Trustee, including without limitation the risk of the Trustee acting on unauthorized instructions, and the risk or interception and misuse by third parties. The Trustee may request that the Company deliver an Officer’s Certificate setting forth the names of individuals and/or titles of officers authorized at such time to furnish the Trustee with Officer’s Certificates, Company Orders and any other matters or directions pursuant to this Indenture;

(k) The rights, privileges, protections, immunities and benefits given to the Trustee, including, without limitation, its right to be indemnified, are extended to, and shall be enforceable by, the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder and under the Securities, and each agent, custodian or other person employed to act under this Indenture; and

(l) The Trustee shall not be deemed to have knowledge of any Default or Event of Default (other than an Event of Default constituting the failure to pay the interest on, or the principal of, the Securities if the Trustee also serves as the paying agent for such Securities) until the Trustee shall have received written notification in the manner set forth in this Indenture or a Responsible Officer of the Trustee shall have obtained actual knowledge.

Section 7.03 Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities.

(a) The recitals contained herein and in the Securities shall be taken as the statements of the Company, and the Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same. The Trustee shall not be responsible for any statement in any registration statement, prospectus, or any other document in connection with the sale of Securities. The Trustee shall not be responsible for any rating on the Securities or any action or omission of any rating agency.

(b) The Trustee makes no representations as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities.

(c) The Trustee shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Company of any of the Securities or of the proceeds of such Securities, or for the use or application of any moneys paid over by the Trustee in accordance with any provision of this Indenture or established pursuant to Section 2.01, or for the use or application of any moneys received by any paying agent other than the Trustee.

 

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Section 7.04 May Hold Securities.

The Trustee or any paying agent or Security Registrar, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee, paying agent or Security Registrar.

Section 7.05 Moneys Held in Trust.

Subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, all moneys received by the Trustee shall, until used or applied as herein provided, be held in trust for the purposes for which they were received, but need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law. The Trustee shall be under no liability for interest on any moneys received by it hereunder except such as it may agree with the Company to pay thereon.

Section 7.06 Compensation and Reimbursement.

(a) The Company shall pay to the Trustee for each of its capacities hereunder from time to time compensation for its services as the Company and the Trustee shall from time to time agree upon in writing. The Trustee’s compensation shall not be limited by any law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust. The Company shall reimburse the Trustee upon request for all reasonable out-of-pocket expenses incurred by it. Such expenses shall include the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel.

(b) The Company shall indemnify each of the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder against any loss, liability or expense (including the cost of defending itself and including the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel) incurred by it except as set forth in Section 7.06(c) in the exercise or performance of its powers, rights or duties under this Indenture as Trustee or Agent. The Trustee shall notify the Company promptly of any claim for which it may seek indemnity. The Company shall defend the claim and the Trustee shall cooperate in the defense. The Trustee may have one separate counsel and the Company shall pay the reasonable fees and expenses of such counsel. The Company need not pay for any settlement made without its consent, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld. This indemnification shall apply to officers, directors, employees, shareholders and agents of the Trustee.

(c) The Company need not reimburse any expense or indemnify against any loss or liability incurred by the Trustee or by any officer, director, employee, shareholder or agent of the Trustee through negligence or bad faith.

(d) To ensure the Company’s payment obligations in this Section, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities on all funds or property held or collected by the Trustee, except that held in trust to pay principal of or interest on particular Securities. When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services in connection with an Event of Default specified in Section 6.01(4) or (5), the expenses (including the reasonable fees and expenses of its counsel) and the compensation for services in connection therewith are to constitute expenses of administration under any bankruptcy law. The provisions of this Section 7.06 shall survive the termination of this Indenture and the resignation or removal of the Trustee.

 

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Section 7.07 Reliance on Officer’s Certificate.

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01, whenever in the administration of the provisions of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it reasonably necessary or desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking or suffering or omitting to take any action hereunder, such matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by an Officer’s Certificate delivered to the Trustee and such certificate, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, shall be full warrant to the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it under the provisions of this Indenture upon the faith thereof.

Section 7.08 Disqualification; Conflicting Interests.

If the Trustee has or shall acquire any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee and the Company shall in all respects comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

Section 7.09 Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility.

There shall at all times be a Trustee with respect to the Securities issued hereunder which shall at all times be a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States of America or any state or territory thereof or of the District of Columbia, or a corporation or other Person permitted to act as trustee by the Commission, authorized under such laws to exercise corporate trust powers, having a combined capital and surplus of at least fifty million U.S. dollars ($50,000,000), and subject to supervision or examination by federal, state, territorial, or District of Columbia authority.

If such corporation or other Person publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of the aforesaid supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation or other Person shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published. The Company may not, nor may any Person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the Company, serve as Trustee. In case at any time the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in Section 7.10.

Section 7.10 Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor.

(a) The Trustee or any successor hereafter appointed may at any time resign with respect to the Securities of one or more series by giving written notice thereof to the Company and the Securityholders of such series. Upon receiving such notice of resignation, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the resigning Trustee and one copy to the successor trustee. If no successor trustee shall have been so appointed and have accepted appointment within 30 days

 

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after the sending of such notice of resignation, the resigning Trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series, or any Securityholder of that series who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, petition any such court for the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, appoint a successor trustee.

(b) In case at any time any one of the following shall occur:

(i) the Trustee shall fail to comply with the provisions of Section 7.08 after written request therefor by the Company or by any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months; or

(ii) the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 7.09 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Company or by any such Securityholder; or

(iii) the Trustee shall become incapable of acting, or shall be adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent, or commence a voluntary bankruptcy proceeding, or a receiver of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed or consented to, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation;

then, in any such case, the Company may remove the Trustee with respect to all Securities and appoint a successor trustee by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the Trustee so removed and one copy to the successor trustee, or any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may, on behalf of that holder and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, remove the Trustee and appoint a successor trustee.

(c) The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding may at any time remove the Trustee with respect to such series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company and may appoint a successor Trustee for such series with the consent of the Company.

(d) Any resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of a series pursuant to any of the provisions of this Section shall become effective upon acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee as provided in Section 7.11.

(e) Any successor trustee appointed pursuant to this Section may be appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more series or all of such series, and at any time there shall be only one Trustee with respect to the Securities of any particular series.

 

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Section 7.11 Acceptance of Appointment By Successor.

(a) In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to all Securities, every such successor trustee so appointed shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to the Company and to the retiring Trustee an instrument accepting such appointment, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee; but, on the request of the Company or the successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall, upon payment of any amounts due to it pursuant to the provisions of Section 7.06, execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor trustee all the rights, powers, and trusts of the retiring Trustee and shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder.

(b) In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Company, the retiring Trustee and each successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto wherein each successor trustee shall accept such appointment and which (i) shall contain such provisions as shall be necessary or desirable to transfer and confirm to, and to vest in, each successor trustee all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates, (ii) shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series as to which the retiring Trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the retiring Trustee, and (iii) shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such Trustees co-trustees of the same trust, that each such Trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts hereunder separate and apart from any trust or trusts hereunder administered by any other such Trustee and that no Trustee shall be responsible for any act or failure to act on the part of any other Trustee hereunder; and upon the execution and delivery of such supplemental indenture the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective to the extent provided therein, such retiring Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates have no further responsibility for the exercise of rights and powers or for the performance of the duties and obligations vested in the Trustee under this Indenture, and each such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates; but, on request of the Company or any successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee, to the extent contemplated by such supplemental indenture, the property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates.

(c) Upon request of any such successor trustee, the Company shall execute any and all instruments for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor trustee all such rights, powers and trusts referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) of this Section, as the case may be.

 

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(d) No successor trustee shall accept its appointment unless at the time of such acceptance such successor trustee shall be qualified and eligible under this Article.

(e) Upon acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee as provided in this Section, the Company shall send notice of the succession of such trustee hereunder to the Securityholders. If the Company fails to send such notice within ten days after acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee, the successor trustee shall cause such notice to be sent at the expense of the Company.

Section 7.12 Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business.

Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to all or substantially all the corporate trust business of the Trustee, including the administration of the trust created by this Indenture, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder, provided that such corporation shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 7.08 and eligible under the provisions of Section 7.09, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding. In case any Securities shall have been authenticated, but not delivered, by the Trustee then in office, any successor by merger, conversion or consolidation to such authenticating Trustee may adopt such authentication and deliver the Securities so authenticated with the same effect as if such successor Trustee had itself authenticated such Securities.

Section 7.13 Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company.

The Trustee shall comply with Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, excluding any creditor relationship described in Section 311(b) of the Trust Indenture Act. A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act to the extent included therein.

Section 7.14 Notice of Default.

If any Event of Default occurs and is continuing and if such Event of Default is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, the Trustee shall send to each Securityholder in the manner and to the extent provided in Section 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act notice of the Event of Default within the earlier of 90 days after it occurs and 30 days after it is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee or written notice of it is received by the Trustee, unless such Event of Default has been cured; provided, however, that, except in the case of a default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security, the Trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as the Responsible Officers of the Trustee in good faith determine that the withholding of such notice is in the interest of the Securityholders.

 

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ARTICLE 8

CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

Section 8.01 Evidence of Action by Securityholders.

Whenever in this Indenture it is provided that the holders of a majority or specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series may take any action (including the making of any demand or request, the giving of any notice, consent or waiver or the taking of any other action), the fact that at the time of taking any such action the holders of such majority or specified percentage of that series have joined therein may be evidenced by any instrument or any number of instruments of similar tenor executed by such holders of Securities of that series in person or by agent or proxy appointed in writing.

If the Company shall solicit from the Securityholders of any series any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, the Company may, at its option, as evidenced by an Officer’s Certificate, fix in advance a record date for such series for the determination of Securityholders entitled to give such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, but the Company shall have no obligation to do so. If such a record date is fixed, such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action may be given before or after the record date, but only the Securityholders of record at the close of business on the record date shall be deemed to be Securityholders for the purposes of determining whether Securityholders of the requisite proportion of Outstanding Securities of that series have authorized or agreed or consented to such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, and for that purpose the Outstanding Securities of that series shall be computed as of the record date; provided, however, that no such authorization, agreement or consent by such Securityholders on the record date shall be deemed effective unless it shall become effective pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture not later than six months after the record date.

Section 8.02 Proof of Execution by Securityholders.

Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, proof of the execution of any instrument by a Securityholder (such proof will not require notarization) or his or her agent or proxy and proof of the holding by any Person of any of the Securities shall be sufficient if made in the following manner:

(a) The fact and date of the execution by any such Person of any instrument may be proved in any reasonable manner acceptable to the Trustee.

(b) The ownership of Securities shall be proved by the Security Register of such Securities or by a certificate of the Security Registrar thereof.

The Trustee may require such additional proof of any matter referred to in this Section as it shall deem necessary.

 

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Section 8.03 Who May be Deemed Owners.

Prior to the due presentment for registration of transfer of any Security, the Company, the Trustee, any paying agent and any Security Registrar may deem and treat the Person in whose name such Security shall be registered upon the books of the Security Registrar as the absolute owner of such Security (whether or not such Security shall be overdue and notwithstanding any notice of ownership or writing thereon made by anyone other than the Security Registrar) for the purpose of receiving payment of or on account of the principal of, premium, if any, and (subject to Section 2.03) interest on such Security and for all other purposes; and neither the Company nor the Trustee nor any paying agent nor any Security Registrar shall be affected by any notice to the contrary.

Section 8.04 Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded.

In determining whether the holders of the requisite aggregate principal amount of Securities of a particular series have concurred in any direction, consent or waiver under this Indenture, the Securities of that series that are owned by the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series or by any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding for the purpose of any such determination, except that for the purpose of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, consent or waiver, only Securities of such series that the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. The Securities so owned that have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding for the purposes of this Section, if the pledgee shall establish to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not a Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Company or any such other obligor. In case of a dispute as to such right, any decision by the Trustee taken upon the advice of counsel shall be full protection to the Trustee.

Section 8.05 Actions Binding on Future Securityholders.

At any time prior to (but not after) the evidencing to the Trustee, as provided in Section 8.01, of the taking of any action by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action, any holder of a Security of that series that is shown by the evidence to be included in the Securities the holders of which have consented to such action may, by filing written notice with the Trustee, and upon proof of holding as provided in Section 8.02, revoke such action so far as concerns such Security. Except as aforesaid any such action taken by the holder of any Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such holder and upon all future holders and owners of such Security, and of any Security issued in exchange therefor, on registration of transfer thereof or in place thereof, irrespective of whether or not any notation in regard thereto is made upon such Security. Any action taken by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action shall be conclusively binding upon the Company, the Trustee and the holders of all the Securities of that series.

 

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ARTICLE 9

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

Section 9.01 Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders.

In addition to any supplemental indenture otherwise authorized by this Indenture, the Company and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect), without the consent of the Securityholders, for one or more of the following purposes:

(a) to cure any ambiguity, defect, or inconsistency herein or in the Securities of any series;

(b) to comply with Article Ten;

(c) to provide for uncertificated Securities in addition to or in place of certificated Securities;

(d) to add to the covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions relating to the Company for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of Securities (and if such covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions are to be for the benefit of less than all series of Securities, stating that such covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions are expressly being included solely for the benefit of such series), to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an Event of Default, or to surrender any right or power herein conferred upon the Company;

(e) to add to, delete from, or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication, and delivery of Securities, as herein set forth;

(f) to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder in any material respect;

(g) to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the Securities of any series as provided in Section 2.01, to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of this Indenture or any series of Securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of Securities;

(h) to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor trustee; or

(i) to comply with any requirements of the Commission or any successor in connection with the qualification of this Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

 

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The Trustee is hereby authorized to join with the Company in the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations that may be therein contained, but the Trustee shall not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture that affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.

Any supplemental indenture authorized by the provisions of this Section may be executed by the Company and the Trustee without the consent of the holders of any of the Securities at the time Outstanding, notwithstanding any of the provisions of Section 9.02.

Section 9.02 Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders.

With the consent (evidenced as provided in Section 8.01) of the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of each series affected by such supplemental indenture or indentures at the time Outstanding, the Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect) for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner not covered by Section 9.01 the rights of the holders of the Securities of such series under this Indenture; provided, however, that no such supplemental indenture shall, without the consent of the holders of each Security then Outstanding and affected thereby, (a) extend the fixed maturity of any Securities of any series, or reduce the principal amount thereof, or reduce the rate or extend the time of payment of interest thereon, or reduce any premium payable upon the redemption thereof or (b) reduce the aforesaid percentage of Securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any such supplemental indenture.

It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Securityholders of any series affected thereby under this Section to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture, but it shall be sufficient if such consent shall approve the substance thereof.

Section 9.03 Effect of Supplemental Indentures.

Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of Section 10.01, this Indenture shall, with respect to such series, be and be deemed to be modified and amended in accordance therewith and the respective rights, limitations of rights, obligations, duties and immunities under this Indenture of the Trustee, the Company and the holders of Securities of the series affected thereby shall thereafter be determined, exercised and enforced hereunder subject in all respects to such modifications and amendments, and all the terms and conditions of any such supplemental indenture shall be and be deemed to be part of the terms and conditions of this Indenture for any and all purposes.

 

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Section 9.04 Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures.

Securities of any series affected by a supplemental indenture, authenticated and delivered after the execution of such supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of Section 10.01, may bear a notation in form approved by the Company, provided such form meets the requirements of any securities exchange upon which such series may be listed, as to any matter provided for in such supplemental indenture. If the Company shall so determine, new Securities of that series so modified as to conform, in the opinion of the Board of Directors, to any modification of this Indenture contained in any such supplemental indenture may be prepared by the Company, authenticated by the Trustee and delivered in exchange for the Securities of that series then Outstanding.

Section 9.05 Execution of Supplemental Indentures.

Upon the request of the Company, accompanied by its Board Resolutions authorizing the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and upon the filing with the Trustee of evidence of the consent of Securityholders required to consent thereto as aforesaid, the Trustee shall join with the Company in the execution of such supplemental indenture unless such supplemental indenture affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise, in which case the Trustee may in its discretion but shall not be obligated to enter into such supplemental indenture. The Trustee, subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, shall receive an Officer’s Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel as conclusive evidence that any supplemental indenture executed pursuant to this Article is authorized or permitted by the terms of this Article and that all conditions precedent to the execution of the supplemental indenture have been complied with; provided, however, that such Officer’s Certificate or Opinion of Counsel need not be provided in connection with the execution of a supplemental indenture that establishes the terms of a series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.

Promptly after the execution by the Company and the Trustee of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Section, the Company shall (or shall direct the Trustee to) send a notice, setting forth in general terms the substance of such supplemental indenture, to the Securityholders of all series affected thereby .as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. Any failure of the Company to send, or cause the sending of, such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture.

ARTICLE 10

SUCCESSOR ENTITY

Section 10.01 Company May Consolidate, Etc.

Nothing contained in this Indenture shall prevent any consolidation or merger of the Company with or into any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Company) or successive consolidations or mergers in which the Company or its successor or successors shall be a party or parties, or shall prevent any sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition of the property of the Company or its successor or successors as an entirety, or substantially as an entirety, to any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Company or its successor or successors); provided, however, the Company hereby covenants and agrees that, upon any such consolidation or merger (in each case, if the Company is not the survivor of such transaction) or any such sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition (other than a sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition to a Subsidiary of the Company), the due and punctual payment of the

 

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principal of (premium, if any) and interest on all of the Securities of all series in accordance with the terms of each series, according to their tenor, and the due and punctual performance and observance of all the covenants and conditions of this Indenture with respect to each series or established with respect to such series pursuant to Section 2.01 to be kept or performed by the Company shall be expressly assumed, by supplemental indenture (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act, as then in effect) reasonably satisfactory in form to the Trustee executed and delivered to the Trustee by the entity formed by such consolidation, or into which the Company shall have been merged, or by the entity which shall have acquired such property.

Section 10.02 Successor Entity Substituted.

(a) In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition and upon the assumption by the successor entity by supplemental indenture, executed and delivered to the Trustee and satisfactory in form to the Trustee, of the obligations set forth under Section 10.01 on all of the Securities of all series Outstanding, such successor entity shall succeed to and be substituted for the Company with the same effect as if it had been named as the Company herein, and thereupon the predecessor corporation shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

(b) In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition, such changes in phraseology and form (but not in substance) may be made in the Securities thereafter to be issued as may be appropriate.

(c) Nothing contained in this Article shall require any action by the Company in the case of a consolidation or merger of any Person into the Company where the Company is the survivor of such transaction, or the acquisition by the Company, by purchase or otherwise, of all or any part of the property of any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Company).

ARTICLE 11

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE

Section 11.01 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.

If at any time: (a) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee for cancellation all Securities of a series theretofore authenticated and not delivered to the Trustee for cancellation (other than any Securities that shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.07 and Securities for whose payment money or Governmental Obligations have theretofore been deposited in trust or segregated and held in trust by the Company and thereupon repaid to the Company or discharged from such trust, as provided in Section 11.05); or (b) all such Securities of a particular series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation shall have become due and payable, or are by their terms to become due and payable within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption, and the Company shall deposit or cause to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds the entire amount in moneys or Governmental Obligations or a combination thereof, sufficient in the

 

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opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay at maturity or upon redemption all Securities of that series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal (and premium, if any) and interest due or to become due to such date of maturity or date fixed for redemption, as the case may be, and if the Company shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder with respect to such series by the Company then this Indenture shall thereupon cease to be of further effect with respect to such series except for the provisions of Sections 2.03, 2.05, 2.07, 4.01, 4.02, 4.03, 7.10, 11.05 and 13.04, that shall survive until the date of maturity or redemption date, as the case may be, and Sections 7.06 and 11.05, that shall survive to such date and thereafter, and the Trustee, on demand of the Company and at the cost and expense of the Company shall execute proper instruments acknowledging satisfaction of and discharging this Indenture with respect to such series.

Section 11.02 Discharge of Obligations.

If at any time all such Securities of a particular series not heretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation or that have not become due and payable as described in Section 11.01 shall have been paid by the Company by depositing irrevocably with the Trustee as trust funds moneys or an amount of Governmental Obligations sufficient to pay at maturity or upon redemption all such Securities of that series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal (and premium, if any) and interest due or to become due to such date of maturity or date fixed for redemption, as the case may be, and if the Company shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company with respect to such series, then after the date such moneys or Governmental Obligations, as the case may be, are deposited with the Trustee the obligations of the Company under this Indenture with respect to such series shall cease to be of further effect except for the provisions of Sections 2.03, 2.05, 2.07, 4,01, 4.02, 4,03, 7.06, 7.10, 11.05 and 13.04 hereof that shall survive until such Securities shall mature and be paid.

Thereafter, Sections 7.06 and 11.05 shall survive.

Section 11.03 Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust.

All moneys or Governmental Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Sections 11.01 or 11.02 shall be held in trust and shall be available for payment as due, either directly or through any paying agent (including the Company acting as its own paying agent), to the holders of the particular series of Securities for the payment or redemption of which such moneys or Governmental Obligations have been deposited with the Trustee.

Section 11.04 Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents.

In connection with the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture all moneys or Governmental Obligations then held by any paying agent under the provisions of this Indenture shall, upon demand of the Company, be paid to the Trustee and thereupon such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys or Governmental Obligations.

 

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Section 11.05 Repayment to Company.

Any moneys or Governmental Obligations deposited with any paying agent or the Trustee, or then held by the Company, in trust for payment of principal of or premium, if any, or interest on the Securities of a particular series that are not applied but remain unclaimed by the holders of such Securities for at least two years after the date upon which the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on such Securities shall have respectively become due and payable, or such other shorter period set forth in applicable escheat or abandoned or unclaimed property law, shall be repaid to the Company on May 31 of each year or upon the Company’s request or (if then held by the Company) shall be discharged from such trust; and thereupon the paying agent and the Trustee shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys or Governmental Obligations, and the holder of any of the Securities entitled to receive such payment shall thereafter, as a general creditor, look only to the Company for the payment thereof.

ARTICLE 12

IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS

Section 12.01 No Recourse.

No recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement of this Indenture, or of any Security, or for any claim based thereon or otherwise in respect thereof, shall be had against any incorporator, stockholder, officer or director, past, present or future as such, of the Company or of any predecessor or successor corporation, either directly or through the Company or any such predecessor or successor corporation, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise; it being expressly understood that this Indenture and the obligations issued hereunder are solely corporate obligations, and that no such personal liability whatever shall attach to, or is or shall be incurred by, the incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors as such, of the Company or of any predecessor or successor corporation, or any of them, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom; and that any and all such personal liability of every name and nature, either at common law or in equity or by constitution or statute, of, and any and all such rights and claims against, every such incorporator, stockholder, officer or director as such, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom, are hereby expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of this Indenture and the issuance of such Securities.

 

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ARTICLE 13

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

Section 13.01 Effect on Successors and Assigns.

All the covenants, stipulations, promises and agreements in this Indenture made by or on behalf of the Company shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not.

Section 13.02 Actions by Successor.

Any act or proceeding by any provision of this Indenture authorized or required to be done or performed by any board, committee or officer of the Company shall and may be done and performed with like force and effect by the corresponding board, committee or officer of any corporation that shall at the time be the lawful successor of the Company.

Section 13.03 Surrender of Company Powers.

The Company by instrument in writing executed by authority of its Board of Directors and delivered to the Trustee may surrender any of the powers reserved to the Company, and thereupon such power so surrendered shall terminate both as to the Company and as to any successor corporation.

Section 13.04 Notices.

Except as otherwise expressly provided herein, any notice, request or demand that by any provision of this Indenture is required or permitted to be given, made or served by the Trustee, the Security Registrar, any paying or other agent under this Indenture or by the holders of Securities or by any other Person pursuant to this Indenture to or on the Company may be given or served by being deposited in first class mail, postage prepaid, addressed (until another address is filed in writing by the Company with the Trustee), as follows: Oyster Point Pharma, Inc., 202 Carnegie Center, Suite 109, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, Attention: Chief Financial Officer (or such other address as shall be specified in writing by the Company). Any notice, election, request or demand by the Company or any Securityholder or by any other Person pursuant to this Indenture to or upon the Trustee shall be deemed to have been sufficiently given or made, for all purposes, if given or made in writing at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee.

Section 13.05 Governing Law; Jury Trial Waiver.

This Indenture and each Security shall be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

EACH PARTY HERETO, AND EACH HOLDER OF A SECURITY BY ACCEPTANCE THEREOF, HEREBY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY RIGHT IT MAY HAVE TO A TRIAL BY JURY IN RESPECT OF ANY LITIGATION DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY ARISING OUT OF, UNDER OR IN CONNECTION WITH THIS INDENTURE.

 

45


Section 13.06 Treatment of Securities as Debt.

It is intended that the Securities will be treated as indebtedness and not as equity for federal income tax purposes. The provisions of this Indenture shall be interpreted to further this intention.

Section 13.07 Certificates and Opinions as to Conditions Precedent.

(a) Upon any application or demand by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under any of the provisions of this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent provided for in this Indenture (other than the certificate to be delivered pursuant to Section 13.12) relating to the proposed action have been complied with and, if requested, an Opinion of Counsel stating that in the opinion of such counsel all such conditions precedent have been complied with, except that in the case of any such application or demand as to which the furnishing of such documents is specifically required by any provision of this Indenture relating to such particular application or demand, no additional certificate or opinion need be furnished.

(b) Each certificate or opinion provided for in this Indenture and delivered to the Trustee with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant in this Indenture (other than the certificate to be delivered pursuant to Section 13.12 of this Indenture or Section 314(a)(1) of the Trust Indenture Act) shall include (i) a statement that the Person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition; (ii) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based; (iii) a statement that, in the opinion of such Person, he has made such examination or investigation as is reasonably necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and (iv) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such Person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

Section 13.08 Payments on Business Days.

Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01 pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, in any case where the date of maturity of interest or principal of any Security or the date of redemption of any Security shall not be a Business Day, then payment of interest or principal (and premium, if any) may be made on the next succeeding Business Day with the same force and effect as if made on the nominal date of maturity or redemption, and no interest shall accrue for the period after such nominal date.

 

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Section 13.09 Conflict with Trust Indenture Act.

If and to the extent that any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies or conflicts with the duties imposed by Section 318(c) of the Trust Indenture Act, such imposed duties shall control.

Section 13.10 Counterparts.

This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which shall be an original, but such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument. The exchange of copies of this Indenture and of signature pages by facsimile or PDF transmission shall constitute effective execution and delivery of this

Indenture as to the parties hereto and may be used in lieu of the original Indenture for all purposes. Signatures of the parties hereto transmitted by facsimile or PDF shall be deemed to be their original signatures for all purposes.

Section 13.11 Separability.

In case any one or more of the provisions contained in this Indenture or in the Securities of any series shall for any reason be held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable in any respect, such invalidity, illegality or unenforceability shall not affect any other provisions of this Indenture or of such Securities, but this Indenture and such Securities shall be construed as if such invalid or illegal or unenforceable provision had never been contained herein or therein.

Section 13.12 Compliance Certificates.

The Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year during which any Securities of any series were outstanding, an officer’s certificate stating whether or not the signers know of any Event of Default that occurred during such fiscal year. Such certificate shall contain a certification from the principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer of the Company that a review has been conducted of the activities of the Company and the Company’s performance under this Indenture and that the Company has complied with all conditions and covenants under this Indenture. For purposes of this Section 13.12, such compliance shall be determined without regard to any period of grace or requirement of notice provided under this Indenture. If the officer of the Company signing such certificate has knowledge of such an Event of Default, the certificate shall describe any such Event of Default and its status.

Section 13.13 U.S.A Patriot Act.

The parties hereto acknowledge that in accordance with Section 326 of the U.S.A. Patriot Act, the Trustee, like all financial institutions and in order to help fight the funding of terrorism and money laundering, is required to obtain, verify, and record information that identifies each person or legal entity that establishes a relationship or opens an account with the Trustee. The parties to this Indenture agree that they will provide the Trustee with such information as it may request in order for the Trustee to satisfy the requirements of the U.S.A. Patriot Act.

 

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Section 13.14 Force Majeure.

In no event shall the Trustee, the Security Registrar, any paying agent or any other agent under this Indenture be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions or utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services; it being understood that the Trustee, the Security Registrar, any paying agent or any other agent under this Indenture shall use reasonable efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances.

Section 13.15 Table of Contents; Headings.

The table of contents and headings of the articles and sections of this Indenture have been inserted for convenience of reference only, are not intended to be considered a part hereof, and will not modify or restrict any of the terms or provisions hereof.

 

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IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed all as of the day and year first above written.

 

OYSTER POINT PHARMA, INC.

By:    
Name:    
Title:    

 

[TRUSTEE], as Trustee

By:    
Name:    
Title:    

 

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CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE (1)

 

Section of Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as Amended    Section of Indenture

310(a)

   7.09

310(b)

   7.08
     7.10

310(c)

   Inapplicable

311(a)

   7.13

311(b)

   7.13

311(c)

   Inapplicable

312(a)

   5.01
     5.02(a)

312(b)

   5.02(c)

312(c)

   5.02(c)

313(a)

   5.04(a)

313(b)

   5.04(b)

313(c)

   5.04(a)
     5.04(b)

313(d)

   5.04(c)

314(a)

   5.03
     13.12

314(b)

   Inapplicable

314(c)

   13.07(a)

314(d)

   Inapplicable

314(e)

   13.07(b)

314(f)

   Inapplicable

315(a)

   7.01(a)
     7.01(b)

315(b)

   7.14

315(c)

   7.01

315(d)

   7.01(b)

315(e)

   6.07

316(a)

   6.06
     8.04

316(b)

   6.04

316(c)

   8.01

317(a)

   6.02

317(b)

   4.03

318(a)

   13.09

 

(1)

This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 

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EX-4.7

Exhibit 4.7

OYSTER POINT PHARMA, INC.

AND

___________, AS WARRANT AGENT

FORM OF COMMON STOCK

WARRANT AGREEMENT

DATED AS OF __________


OYSTER POINT PHARMA, INC.FORM OF COMMON STOCK WARRANT AGREEMENT

THIS COMMON STOCK WARRANT AGREEMENT (this “Agreement”), dated as of [•], between OYSTER POINT PHARMA, INC., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and [•], a [corporation][national banking association] organized and existing under the laws of [•] and having a corporate trust office in [•], as warrant agent (the “Warrant Agent”).

WHEREAS, the Company proposes to sell [If Warrants are sold with other securities —[title of such other securities being offered] (the “Other Securities”) with] warrant certificates evidencing one or more warrants (the “Warrants” or, individually, a “Warrant”) representing the right to purchase Common Stock of the Company, par value $0.001 per share (the “Warrant Securities”), such warrant certificates and other warrant certificates issued pursuant to this Agreement being herein called the “Warrant Certificates”; and

WHEREAS, the Company desires the Warrant Agent to act on behalf of the Company, and the Warrant Agent is willing so to act, in connection with the issuance, registration, transfer, exchange, exercise and replacement of the Warrant Certificates, and in this Agreement wishes to set forth, among other things, the form and provisions of the Warrant Certificates and the terms and conditions on which they may be issued, registered, transferred, exchanged, exercised and replaced.

NOW THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and of the mutual agreements herein contained, the parties hereto agree as follows:

ARTICLE 1

ISSUANCE OF WARRANTS AND EXECUTION AND DELIVERY OF

WARRANT CERTIFICATES

1.1 Issuance of Warrants. [If Warrants alone —Upon issuance, each Warrant Certificate shall evidence one or more Warrants.] [If Other Securities and Warrants —Warrant Certificates will be issued in connection with the issuance of the Other Securities but shall be separately transferable and each Warrant Certificate shall evidence one or more Warrants.] Each Warrant evidenced thereby shall represent the right, subject to the provisions contained herein and therein, to purchase one Warrant Security. [If Other Securities and Warrants —Warrant Certificates will be issued with the Other Securities and each Warrant Certificate will evidence [•] Warrants for each [$[•] principal amount] [[•] shares] of Other Securities issued.]

1.2 Execution and Delivery of Warrant Certificates. Each Warrant Certificate, whenever issued, shall be in registered form substantially in the form set forth in Exhibit A hereto, shall be dated the date of its countersignature by the Warrant Agent and may have such letters, numbers, or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the officers of the Company executing the same may approve (execution thereof to be conclusive evidence of such approval) and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Agreement, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any securities exchange on which the Warrants may be listed, or to conform to usage. The Warrant Certificates shall be signed on behalf of the Company by any of its present or future chief executive officers, presidents, senior vice presidents, vice presidents, chief financial officers, chief legal officers, treasurers, assistant treasurers, controllers, assistant controllers, secretaries or assistant secretaries under its corporate seal reproduced thereon. Such signatures may be manual or facsimile signatures of such authorized officers and may be imprinted or otherwise reproduced on the Warrant Certificates. The seal of the Company may be in the form of a facsimile thereof and may be impressed, affixed, imprinted or otherwise reproduced on the Warrant Certificates.

 

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No Warrant Certificate shall be valid for any purpose, and no Warrant evidenced thereby shall be exercisable, until such Warrant Certificate has been countersigned by the manual signature of the Warrant Agent. Such signature by the Warrant Agent upon any Warrant Certificate executed by the Company shall be conclusive evidence that the Warrant Certificate so countersigned has been duly issued hereunder.

In case any officer of the Company who shall have signed any of the Warrant Certificates either manually or by facsimile signature shall cease to be such officer before the Warrant Certificates so signed shall have been countersigned and delivered by the Warrant Agent, such Warrant Certificates may be countersigned and delivered notwithstanding that the person who signed such Warrant Certificates ceased to be such officer of the Company; and any Warrant Certificate may be signed on behalf of the Company by such persons as, at the actual date of the execution of such Warrant Certificate, shall be the proper officers of the Company, although at the date of the execution of this Agreement any such person was not such officer.

The term “holder” or “holder of a Warrant Certificate” as used herein shall mean any person in whose name at the time any Warrant Certificate shall be registered upon the books to be maintained by the Warrant Agent for that purpose.

1.3 Issuance of Warrant Certificates. Warrant Certificates evidencing the right to purchase Warrant Securities may be executed by the Company and delivered to the Warrant Agent upon the execution of this Agreement or from time to time thereafter. The Warrant Agent shall, upon receipt of Warrant Certificates duly executed on behalf of the Company, countersign such Warrant Certificates and shall deliver such Warrant Certificates to or upon the order of the Company.

ARTICLE 2

WARRANT PRICE, DURATION AND EXERCISE OF WARRANTS

2.1 Warrant Price. During the period specified in Section 2.2, each Warrant shall, subject to the terms of this Agreement and the applicable Warrant Certificate, entitle the holder thereof to purchase the number of Warrant Securities specified in the applicable Warrant Certificate at an exercise price of $[•] per Warrant Security, subject to adjustment upon the occurrence of certain events, as hereinafter provided. Such purchase price per Warrant Security is referred to in this Agreement as the “Warrant Price.

2.2 Duration of Warrants. Each Warrant may be exercised in whole or in part at any time, as specified herein, on or after [the date thereof] [•] and at or before [•] p.m., [City] time, on [•] or such later date as the Company may designate by notice to the Warrant Agent and the holders of Warrant Certificates mailed to their addresses as set forth in the record books of the Warrant Agent (the “Expiration Date”). Each Warrant not exercised at or before [•] p.m., [City] time, on the Expiration Date shall become void, and all rights of the holder of the Warrant Certificate evidencing such Warrant under this Agreement shall cease.

2.3 Exercise of Warrants.

(a) During the period specified in Section 2.2, the Warrants may be exercised to purchase a whole number of Warrant Securities in registered form by providing certain information as set forth on the reverse side of the Warrant Certificate and by paying in full, in lawful money of the United States of America, [in cash or by certified check or official bank check in New York Clearing House funds] [by bank wire transfer in immediately available funds] the Warrant Price for each Warrant Security with respect to which a Warrant is being exercised to the Warrant Agent at its corporate trust office, provided that such exercise is subject to receipt within five business days of such payment by the Warrant Agent of

 

2


the Warrant Certificate with the form of election to purchase Warrant Securities set forth on the reverse side of the Warrant Certificate properly completed and duly executed. The date on which payment in full of the Warrant Price is received by the Warrant Agent shall, subject to receipt of the Warrant Certificate as aforesaid, be deemed to be the date on which the Warrant is exercised; provided, however, that if, at the date of receipt of such Warrant Certificates and payment in full of the Warrant Price, the transfer books for the Warrant Securities purchasable upon the exercise of such Warrants shall be closed, no such receipt of such Warrant Certificates and no such payment of such Warrant Price shall be effective to constitute the person so designated to be named as the holder of record of such Warrant Securities on such date, but shall be effective to constitute such person as the holder of record of such Warrant Securities for all purposes at the opening of business on the next succeeding day on which the transfer books for the Warrant Securities purchasable upon the exercise of such Warrants shall be opened, and the certificates for the Warrant Securities in respect of which such Warrants are then exercised shall be issuable as of the date on such next succeeding day on which the transfer books shall next be opened, and until such date the Company shall be under no duty to deliver any certificate for such Warrant Securities. The Warrant Agent shall deposit all funds received by it in payment of the Warrant Price in an account of the Company maintained with it and shall advise the Company by telephone at the end of each day on which a payment for the exercise of Warrants is received of the amount so deposited to its account. The Warrant Agent shall promptly confirm such telephone advice to the Company in writing.

(b) The Warrant Agent shall, from time to time, as promptly as practicable, advise the Company of (i) the number of Warrant Securities with respect to which Warrants were exercised, (ii) the instructions of each holder of the Warrant Certificates evidencing such Warrants with respect to delivery of the Warrant Securities to which such holder is entitled upon such exercise, (iii) delivery of Warrant Certificates evidencing the balance, if any, of the Warrants for the remaining Warrant Securities after such exercise, and (iv) such other information as the Company shall reasonably require.

(c) As soon as practicable after the exercise of any Warrant, the Company shall issue to or upon the order of the holder of the Warrant Certificate evidencing such Warrant the Warrant Securities to which such holder is entitled, in fully registered form, registered in such name or names as may be directed by such holder. If fewer than all of the Warrants evidenced by such Warrant Certificate are exercised, the Company shall execute, and an authorized officer of the Warrant Agent shall manually countersign and deliver, a new Warrant Certificate evidencing Warrants for the number of Warrant Securities remaining unexercised.

(d) The Company shall not be required to pay any stamp or other tax or other governmental charge required to be paid in connection with any transfer involved in the issue of the Warrant Securities, and in the event that any such transfer is involved, the Company shall not be required to issue or deliver any Warrant Security until such tax or other charge shall have been paid or it has been established to the Company’s satisfaction that no such tax or other charge is due.

(e) Prior to the issuance of any Warrants there shall have been reserved, and the Company shall at all times through the Expiration Date keep reserved, out of its authorized but unissued Warrant Securities, a number of shares sufficient to provide for the exercise of the Warrants.

ARTICLE 3

OTHER PROVISIONS RELATING TO RIGHTS OF HOLDERS OF

WARRANT CERTIFICATES

3.1 No Rights as Warrant Securityholder Conferred by Warrants or Warrant Certificates. No Warrant Certificate or Warrant evidenced thereby shall entitle the holder thereof to any of the rights of a holder of Warrant Securities, including, without limitation, the right to receive the payment of dividends or distributions, if any, on the Warrant Securities or to exercise any voting rights, except to the extent expressly set forth in this Agreement or the applicable Warrant Certificate.

 

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3.2 Lost, Stolen, Mutilated or Destroyed Warrant Certificates. Upon receipt by the Warrant Agent of evidence reasonably satisfactory to it and the Company of the ownership of and the loss, theft, destruction or mutilation of any Warrant Certificate and/or indemnity reasonably satisfactory to the Warrant Agent and the Company and, in the case of mutilation, upon surrender of the mutilated Warrant Certificate to the Warrant Agent for cancellation, then, in the absence of notice to the Company or the Warrant Agent that such Warrant Certificate has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser, the Company shall execute, and an authorized officer of the Warrant Agent shall manually countersign and deliver, in exchange for or in lieu of the lost, stolen, destroyed or mutilated Warrant Certificate, a new Warrant Certificate of the same tenor and evidencing Warrants for a like number of Warrant Securities. Upon the issuance of any new Warrant Certificate under this Section 3.2, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Warrant Agent) in connection therewith. Every substitute Warrant Certificate executed and delivered pursuant to this Section 3.2 in lieu of any lost, stolen or destroyed Warrant Certificate shall represent an additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the lost, stolen or destroyed Warrant Certificate shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to the benefits of this Agreement equally and proportionately with any and all other Warrant Certificates duly executed and delivered hereunder. The provisions of this Section 3.2 are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement of mutilated, lost, stolen or destroyed Warrant Certificates.

3.3 Holder of Warrant Certificate May Enforce Rights. Notwithstanding any of the provisions of this Agreement, any holder of a Warrant Certificate, without the consent of the Warrant Agent, the holder of any Warrant Securities or the holder of any other Warrant Certificate, may, in such holder’s own behalf and for such holder’s own benefit, enforce, and may institute and maintain any suit, action or proceeding against the Company suitable to enforce, or otherwise in respect of, such holder’s right to exercise the Warrants evidenced by such holder’s Warrant Certificate in the manner provided in such holder’s Warrant Certificate and in this Agreement.

3.4 Adjustments.

(a) In case the Company shall at any time subdivide its outstanding shares of Common Stock into a greater number of shares, the Warrant Price in effect immediately prior to such subdivision shall be proportionately reduced and the number of Warrant Securities purchasable under the Warrants shall be proportionately increased. Conversely, in case the outstanding shares of Common Stock of the Company shall be combined into a smaller number of shares, the Warrant Price in effect immediately prior to such combination shall be proportionately increased and the number of Warrant Securities purchasable under the Warrants shall be proportionately decreased.

(b) If at any time or from time to time the holders of Common Stock (or any shares of stock or other securities at the time receivable upon the exercise of the Warrants) shall have received or become entitled to receive, without payment therefor,

(i) Common Stock or any shares of stock or other securities which are at any time directly or indirectly convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, or any rights or options to subscribe for, purchase or otherwise acquire any of the foregoing by way of dividend or other distribution;

 

4


(ii) any cash paid or payable otherwise than as a cash dividend paid or payable out of the Company’s current or retained earnings;

(iii) any evidence of the Company’s indebtedness or rights to subscribe for or purchase the Company’s indebtedness; or

(iv) Common Stock or additional stock or other securities or property (including cash) by way of spinoff, split-up, reclassification, combination of shares or similar corporate rearrangement (other than shares of Common Stock issued as a stock split or adjustments in respect of which shall be covered by the terms of Section 3.4(a) above), then and in each such case, the holder of each Warrant shall, upon the exercise of the Warrant, be entitled to receive, in addition to the number of Warrant Securities receivable thereupon, and without payment of any additional consideration therefore, the amount of stock and other securities and property (including cash and indebtedness or rights to subscribe for or purchase indebtedness) which such holder would hold on the date of such exercise had such holder been the holder of record of such Warrant Securities as of the date on which holders of Common Stock received or became entitled to receive such shares or all other additional stock and other securities and property.

(c) In case of (i) any reclassification, capital reorganization, or change in the Common Stock of the Company (other than as a result of a subdivision, combination, or stock dividend provided for in Section 3.4(a) or Section 3.4(b) above), (ii) share exchange, merger or similar transaction of the Company with or into another person or entity (other than a share exchange, merger or similar transaction in which the Company is the acquiring or surviving corporation and which does not result in any change in the Common Stock other than the issuance of additional shares of Common Stock) or (iii) the sale, exchange, lease, transfer or other disposition of all or substantially all of the properties and assets of the Company as an entirety (in any such case, a “Reorganization Event”), then, as a condition of such Reorganization Event, lawful provisions shall be made, and duly executed documents evidencing the same from the Company or its successor shall be delivered to the holders of the Warrants, so that the holders of the Warrants shall have the right at any time prior to the expiration of the Warrants to purchase, at a total price equal to that payable upon the exercise of the Warrants, the kind and amount of shares of stock and other securities and property receivable in connection with such Reorganization Event by a holder of the same number of Warrant Securities as were purchasable by the holders of the Warrants immediately prior to such Reorganization Event. In any such case appropriate provisions shall be made with respect to the rights and interests of the holders of the Warrants so that the provisions hereof shall thereafter be applicable with respect to any shares of stock or other securities and property deliverable upon exercise the Warrants, and appropriate adjustments shall be made to the Warrant Price payable hereunder provided the aggregate purchase price shall remain the same. In the case of any transaction described in clauses (ii) and (iii) above, the Company shall thereupon be relieved of any further obligation hereunder or under the Warrants, and the Company as the predecessor corporation may thereupon or at any time thereafter be dissolved, wound up or liquidated. Such successor or assuming entity thereupon may cause to be signed, and may issue either in its own name or in the name of the Company, any or all of the Warrants issuable hereunder which heretofore shall not have been signed by the Company, and may execute and deliver securities in its own name, in fulfillment of its obligations to deliver Warrant Securities upon exercise of the Warrants. All the Warrants so issued shall in all respects have the same legal rank and benefit under this Agreement as the Warrants theretofore or thereafter issued in accordance with the terms of this Agreement as though all of such Warrants had been issued at the date of the execution hereof. In any case of any such Reorganization Event, such changes in phraseology and form (but not in substance) may be made in the Warrants thereafter to be issued as may be appropriate. The Warrant Agent may receive a written opinion of legal counsel as conclusive evidence that any such Reorganization Event complies with the provisions of this Section 3.4.

 

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(d) The Company may, at its option, at any time until the Expiration Date, reduce the then current Warrant Price to any amount deemed appropriate by the Board of Directors of the Company for any period not exceeding twenty consecutive days (as evidenced in a resolution adopted by such Board of Directors), but only upon giving the notices required by Section 3.5 at least ten days prior to taking such action.

(e) Except as herein otherwise expressly provided, no adjustment in the Warrant Price shall be made by reason of the issuance of shares of Common Stock, or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of Common Stock, or securities carrying the right to purchase any of the foregoing or for any other reason whatsoever.

(f) No fractional Warrant Securities shall be issued upon the exercise of Warrants. If more than one Warrant shall be exercised at one time by the same holder, the number of full Warrant Securities which shall be issuable upon such exercise shall be computed on the basis of the aggregate number of Warrant Securities purchased pursuant to the Warrants so exercised. Instead of any fractional Warrant Security which would otherwise be issuable upon exercise of any Warrant, the Company shall pay a cash adjustment in respect of such fraction in an amount equal to the same fraction of the last reported sale price (or bid price if there were no sales) per Warrant Security, in either case as reported on the principal registered national securities exchange on which the Warrant Securities are listed or admitted to trading on the business day that next precedes the day of exercise or, if the Warrant Securities are not then listed or admitted to trading on any registered national securities exchange, the average of the closing high bid and low asked prices as reported on the OTC Bulletin Board Service (the “OTC Bulletin Board”) operated by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA” ) or, if not available on the OTC Bulletin Board, then the average of the closing high bid and low asked prices as reported on any other U.S. quotation medium or inter-dealer quotation system on such date, or if on any such date the Warrant Securities are not listed or admitted to trading on a registered national securities exchange, are not included in the OTC Bulletin Board, and are not quoted on any other U.S. quotation medium or inter-dealer quotation system, an amount equal to the same fraction of the average of the closing bid and asked prices as furnished by any FINRA member firm selected from time to time by the Company for that purpose at the close of business on the business day that next precedes the day of exercise.

(g) Whenever the Warrant Price then in effect is adjusted as herein provided, the Company shall mail to each holder of the Warrants at such holder’s address as it shall appear on the books of the Company a statement setting forth the adjusted Warrant Price then and thereafter effective under the provisions hereof, together with the facts, in reasonable detail, upon which such adjustment is based.

(h) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary herein, in no event shall the Warrant Price, as adjusted in accordance with the terms hereof, be less than the par value per share of Common Stock.

3.5 Notice to Warrantholders. In case the Company shall (a) effect any dividend or distribution described in Section 3.4(b), (b) effect any Reorganization Event, (c) make any distribution on or in respect of the Common Stock in connection with the dissolution, liquidation or winding up of the Company, or (d) reduce the then current Warrant Price pursuant to Section 3.4(d), then the Company shall mail to each holder of Warrants at such holder’s address as it shall appear on the books of the Warrant Agent, at least ten days prior to the applicable date hereinafter specified, a notice stating (x) the record date for such dividend or distribution, or, if a record is not to be taken, the date as of which the holders of record of Common Stock that will be entitled to such dividend or distribution are to be determined, (y) the date on which such Reorganization Event, dissolution, liquidation or winding up is expected to become effective, and the date as of which it is expected that holders of Common Stock of record shall be entitled to exchange their shares of Common Stock for securities or other property deliverable upon such Reorganization Event, dissolution, liquidation or winding up, or (z) the first date on which the then current Warrant Price shall be reduced pursuant to Section 3.4(d). No failure to mail such notice nor any defect therein or in the mailing thereof shall affect any such transaction or any adjustment in the Warrant Price required by Section 3.4.

 

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3.6 [If the Warrants are Subject to Acceleration by the Company, Insert — Acceleration of Warrants by the Company.

(a) At any time on or after [•], the Company shall have the right to accelerate any or all Warrants at any time by causing them to expire at the close of business on the day next preceding a specified date (the “Acceleration Date”), if the Market Price (as hereinafter defined) of the Common Stock equals or exceeds [•] percent ([•]%) of the then effective Warrant Price on any twenty Trading Days (as hereinafter defined) within a period of thirty consecutive Trading Days ending no more than five Trading Days prior to the date on which the Company gives notice to the Warrant Agent of its election to accelerate the Warrants.

(b) (b) Market Price” for each Trading Day shall be, if the Common Stock is listed or admitted to trading on any registered national securities exchange, the last reported sale price, regular way (or, if no such price is reported, the average of the reported closing bid and asked prices, regular way) of Common Stock, in either case as reported on the principal registered national securities exchange on which the Common Stock is listed or admitted to trading or, if not listed or admitted to trading on any registered national securities exchange, the average of the closing high bid and low asked prices as reported on the OTC Bulletin Board operated by FINRA, or if not available on the OTC Bulletin Board, then the average of the closing high bid and low asked prices as reported on any other U.S. quotation medium or inter-dealer quotation system, or if on any such date the shares of Common Stock are not listed or admitted to trading on a registered national securities exchange, are not included in the OTC Bulletin Board, and are not quoted on any other U.S. quotation medium or inter-dealer quotation system, the average of the closing bid and asked prices as furnished by any FINRA member firm selected from time to time by the Company for that purpose. “Trading Day” shall be each Monday through Friday, other than any day on which securities are not traded in the system or on the exchange that is the principal market for the Common Stock, as determined by the Board of Directors of the Company. In the event of an acceleration of less than all of the Warrants, the Warrant Agent shall select the Warrants to be accelerated by lot, pro rata or in such other manner as it deems, in its discretion, to be fair and appropriate.

(c) Notice of an acceleration specifying the Acceleration Date shall be sent by mail first class, postage prepaid, to each registered holder of a Warrant Certificate representing a Warrant accelerated at such holder’s address appearing on the books of the Warrant Agent not more than sixty days nor less than thirty days before the Acceleration Date. Such notice of an acceleration also shall be given no more than twenty days, and no less than ten days, prior to the mailing of notice to registered holders of Warrants pursuant to this Section 3.6, by publication at least once in a newspaper of general circulation in the City of New York.

(d) Any Warrant accelerated may be exercised until [•] p.m., [City] time, on the business day next preceding the Acceleration Date. The Warrant Price shall be payable as provided in Section 2.]

ARTICLE 4

EXCHANGE AND TRANSFER OF WARRANT CERTIFICATES

4.1 Exchange and Transfer of Warrant Certificates. Upon surrender at the corporate trust office of the Warrant Agent, Warrant Certificates evidencing Warrants may be exchanged for Warrant Certificates in other denominations evidencing such Warrants or the transfer thereof may be registered in whole or in

 

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part; provided that such other Warrant Certificates evidence Warrants for the same aggregate number of Warrant Securities as the Warrant Certificates so surrendered. The Warrant Agent shall keep, at its corporate trust office, books in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, it shall register Warrant Certificates and exchanges and transfers of outstanding Warrant Certificates, upon surrender of the Warrant Certificates to the Warrant Agent at its corporate trust office for exchange or registration of transfer, properly endorsed or accompanied by appropriate instruments of registration of transfer and written instructions for transfer, all in form satisfactory to the Company and the Warrant Agent. No service charge shall be made for any exchange or registration of transfer of Warrant Certificates, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any stamp or other tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in connection with any such exchange or registration of transfer. Whenever any Warrant Certificates are so surrendered for exchange or registration of transfer, an authorized officer of the Warrant Agent shall manually countersign and deliver to the person or persons entitled thereto a Warrant Certificate or Warrant Certificates duly authorized and executed by the Company, as so requested. The Warrant Agent shall not be required to effect any exchange or registration of transfer which will result in the issuance of a Warrant Certificate evidencing a Warrant for a fraction of a Warrant Security or a number of Warrants for a whole number of Warrant Securities and a fraction of a Warrant Security. All Warrant Certificates issued upon any exchange or registration of transfer of Warrant Certificates shall be the valid obligations of the Company, evidencing the same obligations and entitled to the same benefits under this Agreement as the Warrant Certificate surrendered for such exchange or registration of transfer.

4.2 Treatment of Holders of Warrant Certificates. The Company, the Warrant Agent and all other persons may treat the registered holder of a Warrant Certificate as the absolute owner thereof for any purpose and as the person entitled to exercise the rights represented by the Warrants evidenced thereby, any notice to the contrary notwithstanding.

4.3 Cancellation of Warrant Certificates. Any Warrant Certificate surrendered for exchange, registration of transfer or exercise of the Warrants evidenced thereby shall, if surrendered to the Company, be delivered to the Warrant Agent and all Warrant Certificates surrendered or so delivered to the Warrant Agent shall be promptly canceled by the Warrant Agent and shall not be reissued and, except as expressly permitted by this Agreement, no Warrant Certificate shall be issued hereunder in exchange therefor or in lieu thereof. The Warrant Agent shall deliver to the Company from time to time or otherwise dispose of canceled Warrant Certificates in a manner satisfactory to the Company.

ARTICLE 5

CONCERNING THE WARRANT AGENT

5.1 Warrant Agent. The Company hereby appoints [•] as Warrant Agent of the Company in respect of the Warrants and the Warrant Certificates upon the terms and subject to the conditions herein set forth, and [•] hereby accepts such appointment. The Warrant Agent shall have the powers and authority granted to and conferred upon it in the Warrant Certificates and hereby and such further powers and authority to act on behalf of the Company as the Company may hereafter grant to or confer upon it. All of the terms and provisions with respect to such powers and authority contained in the Warrant Certificates are subject to and governed by the terms and provisions hereof.

 

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5.2 Conditions of Warrant Agent’s Obligations. The Warrant Agent accepts its obligations herein set forth upon the terms and conditions hereof, including the following to all of which the Company agrees and to all of which the rights hereunder of the holders from time to time of the Warrant Certificates shall be subject:

(a) Compensation and Indemnification. The Company agrees promptly to pay the Warrant Agent the compensation to be agreed upon with the Company for all services rendered by the Warrant Agent and to reimburse the Warrant Agent for reasonable out-of-pocket expenses (including reasonable counsel fees) incurred without negligence, bad faith or willful misconduct by the Warrant Agent in connection with the services rendered hereunder by the Warrant Agent. The Company also agrees to indemnify the Warrant Agent for, and to hold it harmless against, any loss, liability or expense incurred without negligence, bad faith or willful misconduct on the part of the Warrant Agent, arising out of or in connection with its acting as Warrant Agent hereunder, including the reasonable costs and expenses of defending against any claim of such liability.

(b) Agent for the Company. In acting under this Agreement and in connection with the Warrant Certificates, the Warrant Agent is acting solely as agent of the Company and does not assume any obligations or relationship of agency or trust for or with any of the holders of Warrant Certificates or beneficial owners of Warrants.

(c) Counsel. The Warrant Agent may consult with counsel satisfactory to it, which may include counsel for the Company, and the written advice of such counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it hereunder in good faith and in accordance with the advice of such counsel.

(d) Documents. The Warrant Agent shall be protected and shall incur no liability for or in respect of any action taken or omitted by it in reliance upon any Warrant Certificate, notice, direction, consent, certificate, affidavit, statement or other paper or document reasonably believed by it to be genuine and to have been presented or signed by the proper parties.

(e) Certain Transactions. The Warrant Agent, and its officers, directors and employees, may become the owner of, or acquire any interest in, Warrants, with the same rights that it or they would have if it were not the Warrant Agent hereunder, and, to the extent permitted by applicable law, it or they may engage or be interested in any financial or other transaction with the Company and may act on, or as depositary, trustee or agent for, any committee or body of holders of Warrant Securities or other obligations of the Company as freely as if it were not the Warrant Agent hereunder. Nothing in this Agreement shall be deemed to prevent the Warrant Agent from acting as trustee under any indenture to which the Company is a party.

(f) No Liability for Interest. Unless otherwise agreed with the Company, the Warrant Agent shall have no liability for interest on any monies at any time received by it pursuant to any of the provisions of this Agreement or of the Warrant Certificates.

(g) No Liability for Invalidity. The Warrant Agent shall have no liability with respect to any invalidity of this Agreement or any of the Warrant Certificates (except as to the Warrant Agent’s countersignature thereon).

(h) No Responsibility for Representations. The Warrant Agent shall not be responsible for any of the recitals or representations herein or in the Warrant Certificates (except as to the Warrant Agent’s countersignature thereon), all of which are made solely by the Company.

(i) No Implied Obligations. The Warrant Agent shall be obligated to perform only such duties as are herein and in the Warrant Certificates specifically set forth and no implied duties or obligations shall be read into this Agreement or the Warrant Certificates against the Warrant Agent. The Warrant Agent shall not be under any obligation to take any action hereunder which may tend to involve it in any expense or liability, the payment of which within a reasonable time is not, in its reasonable opinion,

 

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assured to it. The Warrant Agent shall not be accountable or under any duty or responsibility for the use by the Company of any of the Warrant Certificates authenticated by the Warrant Agent and delivered by it to the Company pursuant to this Agreement or for the application by the Company of the proceeds of the Warrant Certificates. The Warrant Agent shall have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by the Company in the performance of its covenants or agreements contained herein or in the Warrant Certificates or in the case of the receipt of any written demand from a holder of a Warrant Certificate with respect to such default, including, without limiting the generality of the foregoing, any duty or responsibility to initiate or attempt to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise or, except as provided in Section 6.2 hereof, to make any demand upon the Company.

5.3 Resignation, Removal and Appointment of Successors.

(a) The Company agrees, for the benefit of the holders from time to time of the Warrant Certificates, that there shall at all times be a Warrant Agent hereunder until all the Warrants have been exercised or are no longer exercisable.

(b) The Warrant Agent may at any time resign as agent by giving written notice to the Company of such intention on its part, specifying the date on which its desired resignation shall become effective; provided that such date shall not be less than three months after the date on which such notice is given unless the Company otherwise agrees. The Warrant Agent hereunder may be removed at any time by the filing with it of an instrument in writing signed by or on behalf of the Company and specifying such removal and the intended date when it shall become effective. Such resignation or removal shall take effect upon the appointment by the Company, as hereinafter provided, of a successor Warrant Agent (which shall be a bank or trust company authorized under the laws of the jurisdiction of its organization to exercise corporate trust powers) and the acceptance of such appointment by such successor Warrant Agent. The obligation of the Company under Section 5.2(a) shall continue to the extent set forth therein notwithstanding the resignation or removal of the Warrant Agent.

(c) In case at any time the Warrant Agent shall resign, or shall be removed, or shall become incapable of acting, or shall be adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent, or shall commence a voluntary case under the Federal bankruptcy laws, as now or hereafter constituted, or under any other applicable Federal or state bankruptcy, insolvency or similar law or shall consent to the appointment of or taking possession by a receiver, custodian, liquidator, assignee, trustee, sequestrator (or other similar official) of the Warrant Agent or its property or affairs, or shall make an assignment for the benefit of creditors, or shall admit in writing its inability to pay its debts generally as they become due, or shall take corporate action in furtherance of any such action, or a decree or order for relief by a court having jurisdiction in the premises shall have been entered in respect of the Warrant Agent in an involuntary case under the Federal bankruptcy laws, as now or hereafter constituted, or any other applicable Federal or state bankruptcy, insolvency or similar law, or a decree or order by a court having jurisdiction in the premises shall have been entered for the appointment of a receiver, custodian, liquidator, assignee, trustee, sequestrator (or similar official) of the Warrant Agent or of its property or affairs, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Warrant Agent or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation, winding up or liquidation, a successor Warrant Agent, qualified as aforesaid, shall be appointed by the Company by an instrument in writing, filed with the successor Warrant Agent. Upon the appointment as aforesaid of a successor Warrant Agent and acceptance by the successor Warrant Agent of such appointment, the Warrant Agent shall cease to be Warrant Agent hereunder.

(d) Any successor Warrant Agent appointed hereunder shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to its predecessor and to the Company an instrument accepting such appointment hereunder, and thereupon suc